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Occupational Codes and Definitions

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Accountants and Auditors   13-2011

Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others.  Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data.  Excludes “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081).  

Actors   27-2011

Play parts in stage, television, radio, video, motion picture productions, or other settings for entertainment, information, or instruction.  Interpret serious or comic role by speech, gesture, and body movement to entertain or inform audience.  May dance and sing.  

Actuaries   15-2011

Analyze statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits.  May ascertain insurance rates required and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.  

Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders   51-9191

Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product.  Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper; or joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials.  Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-6042).  

Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers   23-1021

Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters.  Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements.  Excludes “Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators” (23-1022).  

Administrative Services Managers   11-3011

Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, facilities planning and maintenance, custodial operations, and other office support services.  Medical records administrators are included in “Medical and Health Services Managers” (11-9111).  Excludes “Purchasing Managers" (11-3061).Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors   25-3011Teach or instruct out-of-school youths and adults in remedial education classes, preparatory classes for the General Educational Development test, literacy, or English as a Second Language.  Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution.  

Advertising and Promotions Managers   11-2011

Plan, direct, or coordinate advertising policies and programs or produce collateral materials, such as posters, contests, coupons, or give-aways, to create extra interest in the purchase of a product or service for a department, an entire organization, or on an account basis.  

Advertising Sales Agents   41-3011

Sell or solicit advertising space, time, or media in publications, signage, TV, radio, or Internet establishments or public spaces.  

Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technicians   17-3021

Operate, install, calibrate, and maintain integrated computer/communications systems, consoles, simulators, and other data acquisition, test, and measurement instruments and equipment, which are used to launch, track, position, and evaluate air and space vehicles.  May record and interpret test data.  

Aerospace Engineers   17-2011

Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft.  May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture.  May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.  

Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes   13-1011

Represent and promote artists, performers, and athletes in dealings with current or prospective employers. May handle contract negotiation and other business matters for clients.  

Agricultural and Food Science Technicians   19-4011

Work with agricultural and food scientists in food, fiber, and animal research, production, and processing; and assist with animal breeding and nutrition.  Conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects.  Includes technicians who assist food scientists or technologists in the research and development of production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and use of foods.  

Agricultural Engineers   17-2021

Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.  

Agricultural Equipment Operators   45-2091

Drive and control farm equipment to till soil and to plant, cultivate, and harvest crops.  May perform tasks, such as crop baling or hay bucking.  May operate stationary equipment to perform post-harvest tasks, such as husking, shelling, threshing, and ginning.  

Agricultural Inspectors   45-2011

Inspect agricultural commodities, processing equipment, and facilities, and fish and logging operations, to ensure compliance with regulations and laws governing health, quality, and safety.  

Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1041

Teach courses in the agricultural sciences.  Includes teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and agricultural soil conservation.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  Excludes “Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1043).  

Air Crew Members   55-3011

Perform in-flight duties to ensure the successful completion of combat, reconnaissance, transport, and search and rescue missions.  Duties include operating aircraft communications and detection equipment, including establishing satellite linkages and jamming enemy communications capabilities; conducting pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight inspections of onboard equipment; operating and maintaining aircraft weapons and defensive systems; operating and maintaining aircraft in-flight refueling systems; executing aircraft safety and emergency procedures; computing and verifying passenger, cargo, fuel, and emergency and special equipment weight and balance data; and conducting cargo and personnel drops.  

Air Crew Officers   55-1011

Perform and direct in-flight duties to ensure the successful completion of combat, reconnaissance, transport, and search and rescue missions.  Duties include operating aircraft communications and radar equipment, such as establishing satellite linkages and jamming enemy communications capabilities; operating aircraft weapons and defensive systems; conducting pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight inspections of onboard equipment; and directing cargo and personnel drops.  

Air Traffic Controllers   53-2021

Control air traffic on and within vicinity of airport and movement of air traffic between altitude sectors and control centers according to established procedures and policies.  Authorize, regulate, and control commercial airline flights according to government or company regulations to expedite and ensure flight safety.  

Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors   53-1011

Supervise and coordinate the activities of ground crew in the loading, unloading, securing, and staging of aircraft cargo or baggage.  May determine the quantity and orientation of cargo and compute aircraft center of gravity.  May accompany aircraft as member of flight crew and monitor and handle cargo in flight, and assist and brief passengers on safety and emergency procedures. Includes loadmasters.  

Aircraft Launch and Recovery Officers   55-1012

Plan and direct the operation and maintenance of catapults, arresting gear, and associated mechanical, hydraulic, and control systems involved primarily in aircraft carrier takeoff and landing operations.  Duties include supervision of readiness and safety of arresting gear, launching equipment, barricades, and visual landing aid systems; planning and coordinating the design, development, and testing of launch and recovery systems; preparing specifications for catapult and arresting gear installations; evaluating design proposals; determining handling equipment needed for new aircraft; preparing technical data and instructions for operation of landing aids; and training personnel in carrier takeoff and landing procedures.  

Aircraft Launch and Recovery Specialists   55-3012

Operate and maintain catapults, arresting gear, and associated mechanical, hydraulic, and control systems involved primarily in aircraft carrier takeoff and landing operations.  Duties include installing and maintaining visual landing aids; testing and maintaining launch and recovery equipment using electric and mechanical test equipment and hand tools; activating airfield arresting systems, such as crash barriers and cables, during emergency landing situations; directing aircraft launch and recovery operations using hand or light signals; and maintaining logs of airplane launches, recoveries, and equipment maintenance.  

Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians   49-3011

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems.  Includes helicopter and aircraft engine specialists.  Excludes “Avionics Technician" (49-2091).  

Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers   51-2011

Assemble, fit, fasten, and install parts of airplanes, space vehicles, or missiles, such as tails, wings, fuselage, bulkheads, stabilizers, landing gear, rigging and control equipment, or heating and ventilating systems.  

Airfield Operations Specialists   53-2022

Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft.  Duties include coordination between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel; dispatching; using airfield landing and navigational aids; implementing airfield safety procedures; monitoring and maintaining flight records; and applying knowledge of weather information.  

Airline Pilots, Copilots, and Flight Engineers   53-2011

Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing, multi-engine aircraft, usually on scheduled air carrier routes, for the transport of passengers and cargo.  Requires Federal Air Transport certificate and rating for specific aircraft type used.  Includes regional, National, and international airline pilots and flight instructors of airline pilots.  

Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians   53-3011

Drive ambulance or assist ambulance driver in transporting sick, injured, or convalescent persons.  Assist in lifting patients.  

Amusement and Recreation Attendants   39-3091

Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility.  May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.  

Anesthesiologists   29-1061

Physicians who administer anesthetics prior to, during, or after surgery, or other medical procedures.  

Animal Breeders   45-2021

Select and breed animals according to their genealogy, characteristics, and offspring.  May require knowledge of artificial insemination techniques and equipment use.  May involve keeping records on heats, birth intervals, or pedigree.  Excludes “Nonfarm Animal Caretakers" (39-2021) who may occasionally breed animals as part of their other caretaking duties.  Excludes “Animal Scientists" (19-1011) whose primary function is research.  

Animal Control Workers   33-9011

Handle animals for the purpose of investigations of mistreatment, or control of abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals.  

Animal Scientists   19-1011

Conduct research in the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals.  

Animal Trainers   39-2011T

Train animals for riding, harness, security, performance, or obedience, or assisting persons with disabilities. Accustom animals to human voice and contact; and condition animals to respond to commands.  Train animals according to prescribed standards for show or competition.  May train animals to carry pack loads or work as part of pack team.  

Anthropologists and Archeologists   19-3091

Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings.  May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world.  May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.  

Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1061

Teach courses in anthropology or archeology.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate   13-2021

Appraise real property and estimate its fair value.  May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.  

Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators   23-1022

Facilitate negotiation and conflict resolution through dialogue.  Resolve conflicts outside of the court system by mutual consent of parties involved.  

Architects, Except Landscape and Naval   17-1011

Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property.  Excludes “Landscape Architects” (17-1012) and “Marine Engineers and Naval Architects” (17-2121).  

Architectural and Civil Drafters   17-3011

Prepare detailed drawings of architectural and structural features of buildings or drawings and topographical relief maps used in civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and public works.  Use knowledge of building materials, engineering practices, and mathematics to complete drawings.  

Architectural and Engineering Managers   11-9041

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields.  Excludes “Natural Sciences Managers" (11-9121).  

Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1031

Teach courses in architecture and architectural design, such as architectural environmental design, interior architecture/design, and landscape architecture.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Archivists   25-4011

Appraise, edit, and direct safekeeping of permanent records and historically valuable documents. Participate in research activities based on archival materials.  

Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1062

Teach courses pertaining to the culture and development of an area, an ethnic group, or any other group, such as Latin American studies, women’s studies, or urban affairs.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Armored Assault Vehicle Crew Members   55-3013

Operate tanks, light armor, and amphibious assault vehicles during combat situations on land or in aquatic environments.  Duties include driving armored vehicles which require specialized training; operating and maintaining targeting and firing systems; operating and maintaining advanced onboard communications and navigation equipment; transporting personnel and equipment in a combat environment; and operating and maintaining auxiliary weapons, including machine guns and grenade launchers.  

Armored Assault Vehicle Officers   55-1013

Direct the operation of tanks, light armor, and amphibious assault vehicle units during combat situations onland or in aquatic environments.  Duties include directing crew members in the operation of targeting and firing systems; coordinating the operation of advanced onboard communications and navigation equipment; directing the transport of personnel and equipment during combat; formulating and implementing battle plans, including the tactical employment of armored vehicle units; and coordinating with infantry, artillery, and air support units.  

Art Directors   27-1011

Formulate design concepts and presentation approaches for visual communications media, such as print, broadcasting, and advertising.  Direct workers engaged in art work or layout design.  

Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1121

Teach courses in drama, music, and the arts including fine and applied art, such as painting and sculpture, or design and crafts.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Artillery and Missile Crew Members   55-3014

Target, fire, and maintain weapons used to destroy enemy positions, aircraft, and vessels.  Field artillery crew members predominantly use guns, cannons, and howitzers in ground combat operations, while air defense artillery crew members predominantly use missiles and rockets.  Naval artillery crew members predominantly use torpedoes and missiles launched from a ship or submarine.  Duties include testing, inspecting, and storing ammunition, missiles, and torpedoes; conducting preventive and routine maintenance on weapons and related equipment; establishing and maintaining radio and wire communications; and operating weapons targeting, firing, and launch computer systems.  

Artillery and Missile Officers   55-1014

Manage personnel and weapons operations to destroy enemy positions, aircraft, and vessels.  Duties include planning, targeting, and coordinating the tactical deployment of field artillery and air defense artillery missile systems units; directing the establishment and operation of fire control communications systems; targeting and launching intercontinental ballistic missiles; directing the storage and handling of nuclear munitions and components; overseeing security of weapons storage and launch facilities; and managing maintenance of weapons systems.  

Artists and Related Workers, All Other   27-1019

All artists and related workers not listed separately.  

Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other   51-2099

All assemblers and fabricators not listed separately.  

Astronomers   19-2011

Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.  

Athletes and Sports Competitors   27-2021

Compete in athletic events.  

Athletic Trainers   29-9091

Evaluate and advise individuals to assist recovery from or avoid athletic-related injuries or illnesses, or maintain peak physical fitness.  May provide first aid or emergency care.  

Atmospheric and Space Scientists   19-2021

Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses.  Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology.  

Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1051

Teach courses in the physical sciences, except chemistry and physics.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Audio and Video Equipment Technicians   27-4011

Set up, or set up and operate audio and video equipment including microphones, sound speakers, video screens, projectors, video monitors, recording equipment, connecting wires and cables, sound and mixing boards, and related electronic equipment for concerts, sports events, meetings and conventions, presentations, and news conferences.  May also set up and operate associated spotlights and other custom lighting systems.  Excludes "Sound Engineering Technicians" (27-4014).  

Audiologists   29-1181

Assess and treat persons with hearing and related disorders.  May fit hearing aids and provide auditory training.  May perform research related to hearing problems.  

Audio-Visual and Multimedia Collections Specialists   25-9011

Prepare, plan, and operate multimedia teaching aids for use in education.  May record, catalogue, and file materials.


Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants   53-6031

Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories.  Collect payment for services and supplies.  May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, install antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts.  May repair or replace tires.  

Automotive Body and Related Repairers   49-3021

Repair and refinish automotive vehicle bodies and straighten vehicle frames.  Excludes “Painters, Transportation Equipment" (51-9122) and "Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers" (49-3022).  

Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers   49-3022

Replace or repair broken windshields and window glass in motor vehicles.  

Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics   49-3023

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul automotive vehicles.  Excludes “Automotive Body and Related Repairers" (49-3021), "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031), and "Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles" (49-2096).  

Avionics Technicians   49-2091

Install, inspect, test, adjust, or repair avionics equipment, such as radar, radio, navigation, and missile control systems in aircraft or space vehicles.  


Baggage Porters and Bellhops   39-6011

Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments.  

Bailiffs   33-3011

Maintain order in courts of law.  

Bakers   51-3011

Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods. Pastry chefs in restaurants and hotels are included with "Chefs and Head Cooks" (35-1011).  

Barbers   39-5011

Provide barbering services, such as cutting, trimming, shampooing, and styling hair, trimming beards, or giving shaves.  

Bartenders   35-3011

Mix and serve drinks to patrons, directly or through wait staff.  

Bicycle Repairers   49-3091

Repair and service bicycles. Bill and Account Collectors   43-3011Locate and notify customers of delinquent accounts by mail, telephone, or personal visit to solicit payment. Duties include receiving payment and posting amount to customer's account; preparing statements to credit department if customer fails to respond; initiating repossession proceedings or service disconnection; and keeping records of collection and status of accounts.  

Billing and Posting Clerks   43-3021

Compile, compute, and record billing, accounting, statistical, and other numerical data for billing purposes. Prepare billing invoices for services rendered or for delivery or shipment of goods.  

Biochemists and Biophysicists   19-1021

Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena.  May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.  

Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1042

Teach courses in biological sciences.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Biological Scientists, All Other   19-1029

all biological scientists not listed separately.  

Biological Technicians   19-4021

Assist biological and medical scientists in laboratories.  Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, make observations, and calculate and record results.  May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs.  

Biomedical Engineers   17-2031

Apply knowledge of engineering, biology, and biomechanical principles to the design, development, and evaluation of biological and health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation, medical information systems, and heath management and care delivery systems.  

Boilermakers   47-2011

Construct, assemble, maintain, and repair stationary steam boilers and boiler house auxiliaries.  Align structures or plate sections to assemble boiler frame tanks or vats, following blueprints.  Work involves use offhand and power tools, plumb bobs, levels, wedges, dogs, or turnbuckles.  Assist in testing assembled vessels.  Direct cleaning of boilers and boiler furnaces.  Inspect and repair boiler fittings, such as safety valves, regulators, automatic-control mechanisms, water columns, and auxiliary machines.  

Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks   43-3031

Compute, classify, and record numerical data to keep financial records complete.  Perform any combination of routine calculating, posting, and verifying duties to obtain primary financial data for use in maintaining accounting records.  May also check the accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers.  Excludes “Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks” (43-3051).  

Brickmasons and Blockmasons   47-2021

Lay and bind building materials, such as brick, structural tile, concrete block, cinder block, glass block, and terra-cotta block, with mortar and other substances to construct or repair walls, partitions, arches, sewers, and other structures.  Excludes “Stonemasons" (47-2022).  Installers of mortar less segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in "Landscaping and Grounds keeping Workers" (37-3011).  

Bridge and Lock Tenders   53-6011

Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages.  May supervise such operations.  Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators.  

Broadcast News Analysts   27-3021

Analyze, interpret, and broadcast news received from various sources.  

Broadcast Technicians   27-4012

Set up, operate, and maintain the electronic equipment used to transmit radio and television programs. Control audio equipment to regulate volume level and quality of sound during radio and television broadcasts.  Operate transmitter to broadcast radio or television programs.  

Brokerage Clerks   43-4011

Perform duties related to the purchase, sale or holding of securities.  Duties include writing orders for stock purchases or sales, computing transfer taxes, verifying stock transactions, accepting and delivering securities, tracking stock price fluctuations, computing equity, distributing dividends, and keeping records of daily transactions and holdings.  

Budget Analysts   13-2031

Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Analyze budgeting and accounting reports. Building Cleaning Workers, All Other   37-2019All building cleaning workers not listed separately.  

Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists   49-3031

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul buses and trucks, or maintain and repair any type of diesel engines. Includes mechanics working primarily with automobile or marine diesel engines.  

Bus Drivers, School or Special Client   53-3022

Transport students or special clients, such as the elderly or persons with disabilities.  Ensure adherence to safety rules.  May assist passengers in boarding or exiting.  

Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity   53-3021

Drive bus or motor coach, including regular route operations, charters, and private carriage.  May assist passengers with baggage.  May collect fares or tickets.  

Business Operations Specialists, All Other   13-1199

All business operations specialists not listed separately.  

Business Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1011

Teach courses in business administration and management, such as accounting, finance, human resources, labor and industrial relations, marketing, and operations research.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Butchers and Meat Cutters   51-3021

Cut, trim, or prepare consumer-sized portions of meat for use or sale in retail establishments.  

Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products   13-1021

Purchase farm products either for further processing or resale.  Includes tree farm contractors, grain brokers and market operators, grain buyers, and tobacco buyers.  


Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters   51-7011

Cut, shape, and assemble wooden articles or set up and operate a variety of woodworking machines, such as power saws, jointers, and mortises to surface, cut, or shape lumber or to fabricate parts for wood products. Excludes “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-7040).  

Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers   49-9061

Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including commercial video and motion picture camera equipment.  

Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture   27-4031

Operate television, video, or motion picture camera to record images or scenes for various purposes, such as TV broadcasts, advertising, video production, or motion pictures.  

Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels   53-5021

Command or supervise operations of ships and water vessels, such as tugboats and ferryboats.  Required to hold license issued by U.S. Coast Guard.  Excludes “Motorboat Operators" (53-5022).  

Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians   29-2031

Conduct tests on pulmonary or cardiovascular systems of patients for diagnostic purposes.  May conduct or assist in electrocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, pulmonary functions, lung capacity, and similar tests. Includes vascular technologists.  

Career/Technical  Education Teachers, Middle School   25-2023

Teach occupational, career and technical, or vocational subjects in public or private schools at the middle, intermediate, or junior high level, which falls between elementary and senior high school as defined by applicable laws and regulations.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All other"(25-3099).  Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).  

Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School   25-2032

Teach occupational, career and technical, or vocational subjects at the secondary school level in public or private schools.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).Excludes “Special Education Teachers, Secondary School” (25-2054).  

Cargo and Freight Agents   43-5011

Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals, and shipping docks.  Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform.  Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.  

Carpenters   47-2031

Construct, erect, install, or repair structures and fixtures made of wood, such as concrete forms; building frameworks, including partitions, joists, studding, and rafters; and wood stairways, window and door frames, and hardwood floors.  May also install cabinets, siding, drywall and batt or roll insulation. Includes brattice builders who build doors or brattices (ventilation walls or partitions) in underground passageways.  

Carpet Installers   47-2041

Lay and install carpet from rolls or blocks on floors.  Install padding and trim flooring materials.  Excludes “Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles" (47-2042).  

Cartographers and Photogrammetrists   17-1021

Collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data.  Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes.  May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS).  May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems.  

Cashiers   41-2011

Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions.  May use electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment.  May process credit or debit card transactions and validate checks.  Excludes “Gaming Cage Persons and Booth Cashiers” (41-2012).  

Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers   47-2051

Smooth and finish surfaces of poured concrete, such as floors, walks, sidewalks, roads, or curbs using a variety of hand and power tools.  Align forms for sidewalks, curbs, or gutters; patch voids; and use saws to cut expansion joints.  Installers of mortar less segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in “Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers” (37- 3011).  

Chefs and Head Cooks   35-1011

Direct and may participate in the preparation, seasoning, and cooking of salads, soups, fish, meats, vegetables, desserts, or other foods.  May plan and price menu items, order supplies, and keep records and accounts.  

Chemical Engineers   17-2041

Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products, such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp, by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.  

Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders   51-9011

Operate or tend equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products.  Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels. Excludes “Chemical Plant and System Operators" (51-8091).  

Chemical Plant and System Operators   51-8091

Control or operate entire chemical processes or system of machines.  

Chemical Technicians   19-4031

Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.  

Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1052

Teach courses pertaining to the chemical and physical properties and compositional changes of substances.  Work may include instruction in the methods of qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes "Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1042) who teach biochemistry.  

Chemists   19-2031

Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge.  Excludes “Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers" (19-2042) and "Biochemists and Biophysicists" (19-1021).  

Chief Executives   11-1011

Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body.  Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.  

Child, Family, and School Social Workers   21-1021

Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children.  May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children.  In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy.  May also advise teachers.  

Childcare Workers   39-9011

Attend to children at schools, businesses, private households, and childcare institutions.  Perform a variety of tasks, such as dressing, feeding, bathing, and overseeing play.  Excludes "Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education" (25-2011) and "Teacher Assistants" (25-9041).  

Chiropractors   29-1011

Assess, treat, and care for patients by manipulation of spine and musculoskeletal system.  May provide spinal adjustment or address sacral or pelvic misalignment.  

Choreographers   27-2032

Create new dance routines.  Rehearse performance of routines.  May direct and stage presentations.  

Civil Engineering Technicians   17-3022

Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.  

Civil Engineers   17-2051

Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems.  Includes architectural, structural, traffic, ocean, and geo-technical engineers.  Excludes “Hydrologists" (19-2043).  

Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators   13-1031

Review settled claims to determine that payments and settlements are made in accordance with company practices and procedures.  Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation.  May also settle insurance claims.  Excludes "Fire Inspectors and Investigators" (33-2021).  

Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment   53-7061

Wash or otherwise clean vehicles, machinery, and other equipment.  Use such materials as water, cleaning agents, brushes, cloths, and hoses.  Excludes “Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners" (37-2011).  

Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders   51-9192

Operate or tend machines to wash or clean products, such as barrels or kegs, glass items, tin plate, food, pulp, coal, plastic, or rubber, to remove impurities.  

Clergy   21-2011

Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination.  Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.  

Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists   19-3031

Diagnose and treat mental disorders; learning disabilities; and cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems, using individual, child, family, and group therapies.  May design and implement behavior modification programs.  

Coaches and Scouts   27-2022

Instruct or coach groups or individuals in the fundamentals of sports.  Demonstrate techniques and methods of participation.  May evaluate athletes' strengths and weaknesses as possible recruits or to improve the athletes' technique to prepare them for competition.  Those required to hold teaching degrees should be reported in the appropriate teaching category.  Excludes "Athletic Trainers" (29-9091).  

Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-9121

Set up, operate, or tend machines to coat or paint any of a wide variety of products including, glassware, cloth, ceramics, metal, plastic, paper, or wood, with lacquer, silver, copper, rubber, varnish, glaze, enamel, oil, or rust-proofing materials.  Excludes “Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic" (51-4193) and "Painters, Transportation Equipment" (51-9122).  

Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers   51-2021

Wind wire coils used in electrical components, such as resistors and transformers, and in electrical equipment and instruments, such as field cores, bobbins, armature cores, electrical motors, generators, and control equipment.  

Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers   49-9091

Install, service, adjust, or repair coin, vending, or amusement machines including video games, juke boxes, pinball machines, or slot machines.  

Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food   35-3021

Perform duties which combine preparing and serving food and nonalcoholic beverages.  

Command and Control Center Officers   55-1015

Manage the operation of communications, detection, and weapons systems essential for controlling air, ground, and naval operations.  Duties include managing critical communication links between air, naval, and ground forces; formulating and implementing emergency plans for natural and wartime disasters; coordinating emergency response teams and agencies; evaluating command center information and need for high-level military and government reporting; managing the operation of surveillance and detection systems; providing technical information and advice on capabilities and operational readiness; and directing operation of weapons targeting, firing, and launch computer systems.  

Command and Control Center Specialists   55-3015

Operate and monitor communications, detection, and weapons systems essential for controlling air, ground, and naval operations.  Duties include maintaining and relaying critical communications between air, naval, and ground forces; implementing emergency plans for natural and wartime disasters; relaying command center information to high-level military and government decision makers; monitoring surveillance and detection systems, such as air defense; interpreting and evaluating tactical situations and making recommendations to superiors; and operating weapons targeting, firing, and launch computer systems.  

Commercial and Industrial Designers   27-1021

Develop and design manufactured products, such as cars, home appliances, and children's toys. Combine artistic talent with research on product use, marketing, and materials to create the most functional and appealing product design.  

Commercial Divers   49-9092

Work below surface of water, using scuba gear to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures.  May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment.  May conduct tests or experiments, rig explosives, or photograph structures or marine life. Excludes “Fishers and Related Fishing Workers" (45-3011), "Athletes and Sports Competitors" (27-2021), and “Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers" (33-3051).  

Commercial Pilots   53-2012

Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft on nonscheduled air carrier routes, or helicopters. Requires Commercial Pilot certificate.  Includes charter pilots with similar certification, and air ambulance and air tour pilots.  Excludes regional, National, and international airline pilots.  

Communications Equipment Operators, All Other   43-2099

All communications equipment operators not listed separately.  

Communications Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1122

Teach courses in communications, such as organizational communications, public relations, radio/television broadcasting, and journalism.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other   21-1099

All community and social service specialists not listed separately.  

Community Health Workers   21-1094

Assist individuals and communities to adopt healthy behaviors.  Conduct outreach for medical personnel or health organizations to implement programs in the community that promote, maintain, and improve individual and community health.  May provide information on available resources, provide social support and informal counseling, advocate for individuals and community health needs, and provide services such as first aid and blood pressure screening.  May collect data to help identify community health needs. Excludes “Health Educators” (21-1091).  

Compensation and Benefits Managers   11-3111

Plan, direct, or coordinate compensation and benefits activities of an organization.  Job analysis and position description managers are included in “Human Resource Managers” (11-3121).  

Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists   13-1141

Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer.  May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.  

Compliance Officers   13-1041

Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere.  Excludes "Financial Examiners" (13-2061), “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents" (13-2081), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (29-9011),“Occupational Health and Safety Technicians” (29-9012), "Transportation Security Screeners" (33-9093),“Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011), “Construction and Building Inspectors” (47-4011), and “Transportation Inspectors” (53-6051).  

Computer and Information Research Scientists   15-1111

Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software.  

Computer and Information Systems Managers   11-3021

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming.  Excludes “Computer Occupations" (15-1111 through 15-1199).  

Computer Hardware Engineers   17-2061

Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use.  May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components.  Excludes “Software Developers, Applications" (15-1132) and “Software Developers, Systems Software (15-1133).  

Computer Network Architects   15-1143

Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks.  Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning.  May also design network and computer security measures.  May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software.  Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1122), “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1142), and “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1152).  

Computer Network Support Specialists   15-1152

Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Internet systems or a segment of a network system.  Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption.  Excludes “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1142) and “Computer Network Architects” (15-1143).  

Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Programmers, Metal and Plastic   51-4012

Develop programs to control machining or processing of metal or plastic parts by automatic machine tools, equipment, or systems.  

Computer Occupations, All Other   15-1199

All computer occupations not listed separately.  Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers”(11-3021), “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061), “Electrical and Electronics Engineers” (17-2070),“Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021), “Multimedia Artists and Animators” (27-1014),“Graphic Designers” (27-1024), “Computer Operators” (43-9011), and “Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairs” (49-2011).  

Computer Operators   43-9011

Monitor and control electronic computer and peripheral electronic data processing equipment to process business, scientific, engineering, and other data according to operating instructions.  Monitor and respond to operating and error messages.  May enter commands at a computer terminal and set controls on computer and peripheral devices.  Excludes “Computer Occupations” (15-1100) and "Data Entry Keyers" (43-9021).  

Computer Programmers   15-1131

Create, modify, and test the code, forms, and script that allow computer applications to run.  Work from specifications drawn up by software developers or other individuals.  May assist software developers by analyzing user needs and designing software solutions.  May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.  

Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1021

Teach courses in computer science.  May specialize in a field of computer science, such as the design and function of computers or operations and research analysis.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Computer Systems Analysts   15-1121

Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to implement and improve computer systems.  Analyze user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate or improve existing systems and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations.  May analyze or recommend commercially available software.  

Computer User Support Specialists   15-1151

Provide technical assistance to computer users.  Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, or via telephone or electronically.  May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems.  Excludes “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1142).  

Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers   49-2011

Repair, maintain, or install computers, word processing systems, automated teller machines, and electronic office machines, such as duplicating and fax machines.  

Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic   51-4011

Operate computer-controlled machines or robots to perform one or more machine functions on metal or plastic work pieces.  

Concierges   39-6012

Assist patrons at hotel, apartment, or office building with personal services.  May take messages, arrange or give advice on transportation, business services or entertainment, or monitor guest requests for housekeeping and maintenance.  

Conservation Scientists   19-1031

Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment. May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands.  May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering. Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists" (19-1023) and "Foresters" (19-1032).  

Construction and Building Inspectors   47-4011

Inspect structures using engineering skills to determine structural soundness and compliance with specifications, building codes, and other regulations.  Inspections may be general in nature or may be limited to a specific area, such as electrical systems or plumbing.  

Construction and Related Workers, All Other   47-4099

All construction and related workers not listed separately.  

Construction Laborers   47-2061

Perform tasks involving physical labor at construction sites.  May operate hand and power tools of all types: air hammers, earth tampers, cement mixers, small mechanical hoists, surveying and measuring equipment, and a variety of other equipment and instruments.  May clean and prepare sites, dig trenches, set braces to support the sides of excavations, erect scaffolding, and clean up rubble, debris and other waste materials. May assist other craft workers.  Construction laborers who primarily assist a particular craft worker are classified under "Helpers, Construction Trades" (47-3010).  Excludes “Hazardous Materials Removal Workers” (47-4041).  

Construction Managers   11-9021

Plan, direct, or coordinate, usually through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems.  Participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, budgeting, and implementation.  Includes managers in specialized construction fields, such as carpentry or plumbing.  

Continuous Mining Machine Operators   47-5041

Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors or into shuttle cars in a continuous operation.  

Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door   49-9012

Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.  

Conveyor Operators and Tenders   53-7011

Control or tend conveyors or conveyor systems that move materials or products to and from stockpiles, processing stations, departments, or vehicles.  May control speed and routing of materials or products.  

Cooks, All Other   35-2019

All cooks not listed separately.  

Cooks, Fast Food   35-2011

Prepare and cook food in a fast food restaurant with a limited menu.  Duties of these cooks are limited to preparation of a few basic items and normally involve operating large-volume single-purpose cooking equipment.  

Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria   35-2012

Prepare and cook large quantities of food for institutions, such as schools, hospitals, or cafeterias.  

Cooks, Private Household   35-2013

Prepare meals in private homes.  Includes personal chefs.  

Cooks, Restaurant   35-2014

Prepare, season, and cook dishes such as soups, meats, vegetables, or desserts in restaurants.  May order supplies, keep records and accounts, price items on menu, or plan menu.  

Cooks, Short Order   35-2015

Prepare and cook to order a variety of foods that require only a short preparation time.  May take orders from customers and serve patrons at counters or tables.  Excludes "Fast Food Cooks" (35-2011).  

Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders   51-9193

Operate or tend equipment, such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, to cool or freeze products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals.  

Correctional Officers and Jailers   33-3012

Guard inmates in penal or rehabilitative institutions in accordance with established regulations and procedures.  May guard prisoners in transit between jail, courtroom, prison, or other point.  Includes deputy sheriffs and police who spend the majority of their time guarding prisoners in correctional institutions.  

Correspondence Clerks   43-4021

Compose letters or electronic correspondence in reply to requests for merchandise, damage claims, credit and other information, delinquent accounts, incorrect billings, or unsatisfactory services.  Duties may include gathering data to formulate reply and preparing correspondence.  

Cost Estimators   13-1051

Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service.  May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.  

Costume Attendants   39-3092

Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers.  May assist with multiple costume changes during performances.  

Counselors, All Other   21-1019

All counselors not listed separately.  

Counter and Rental Clerks   41-2021

Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services.  May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment.  Excludes “Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop” (35-3022), “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081), “Order Clerks” (43-4151), and “Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks” (43-4181).  

Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop   35-3022

Serve food to diners at counter or from a steam table.  Counter attendants who also wait tables are included in "Waiters and Waitresses" (35-3031).  

Couriers and Messengers   43-5021

Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance.  Excludes "Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers" (53-3033).  

Court Reporters   23-2091

Use verbatim methods and equipment to capture, store, retrieve, and transcribe pretrial and trial proceedings or other information.  Includes stenocaptioners who operate computerized stenographic captioning equipment to provide captions of live or prerecorded broadcasts for hearing-impaired viewers.  

Court, Municipal, and License Clerks   43-4031

Perform clerical duties for courts of law, municipalities, or governmental licensing agencies and bureaus. May prepare docket of cases to be called; secure information for judges and court; prepare draft agendas or bylaws for town or city council; answer official correspondence; keep fiscal records and accounts; issue licenses or permits; and record data, administer tests, or collect fees.  Clerks of Court are classified in” Managers, All Other” (11-9199).  

Craft Artists   27-1012

Create or reproduce hand-made objects for sale and exhibition using a variety of techniques, such as welding, weaving, pottery, and needlecraft.  

Crane and Tower Operators   53-7021

Operate mechanical boom and cable or tower and cable equipment to lift and move materials, machines, or products in many directions.  Excludes “Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators" (53-7032).  

Credit Analysts   13-2041

Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money.  Prepare reports with credit information for use in decision making.  

Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks   43-4041

Authorize credit charges against customers' accounts.  Investigate history and credit standing of individuals or business establishments applying for credit.  May interview applicants to obtain personal and financial data; determine credit worthiness; process applications; and notify customers of acceptance or rejection of credit.  

Credit Counselors   13-2071

Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt.  May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explaining loan requirements or restrictions.  May help develop debt management plans, advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, and bankruptcy counseling.  

Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1111

Teach courses in criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement administration.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Crossing Guards   33-9091

Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at such places as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites.  

Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-9021

Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber.  

Curators   25-4012

Administer collections, such as artwork, collectibles, historic items, or scientific specimens of museums or other institutions.  May conduct instructional, research, or public service activities of institution.  

Customer Service Representatives   43-4051

Interact with customers to provide information in response to inquiries about products and services and to handle and resolve complaints.  Excludes individuals whose duties are primarily installation, sales, or repair.  

Cutters and Trimmers, Hand   51-9031

Use hand tools or hand-held power tools to cut and trim a variety of manufactured items, such as carpet, fabric, stone, glass, or rubber.  

Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-9032

Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material.  Excludes “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-7040), "Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic" (51-4031), and "Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-6062).  

Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4031

Set up, operate, or tend machines to saw, cut, shear, slit, punch, crimp, notch, bend, or straighten metal or plastic material.  


Dancers   27-2031

Perform dances.  May perform on stage, for on-air broadcasting, or for video recording  

Data Entry Keyers   43-9021

Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator.  Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing.  Excludes "Word Processors and Typists" (43-9022).  

Database Administrators   15-1141

Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems.  Coordinate changes to computer databases.  May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases.  Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1122).  

Demonstrators and Product Promoters   41-9011

Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product.  May sell demonstrated merchandise.  

Dental Assistants   31-9091

Assist dentist, set up equipment, prepare patient for treatment, and keep records.  

Dental Hygienists   29-2021

Clean teeth and examine oral areas, head, and neck for signs of oral disease.  May educate patients on oral hygiene, take and develop x rays, or apply fluoride or sealants.  

Dental Laboratory Technicians   51-9081

Construct and repair full or partial dentures or dental appliances.  Excludes “Dental Assistants" (31-9091).  

Dentists, All Other Specialists   29-1029

All dentists not listed separately.  

Dentists, General   29-1021

Examine, diagnose, and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums.  May treat diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting oral hygiene and retention of teeth.  May fit dental appliances or provide preventive care.  Excludes "Prosthodontists" (29-1024), "Orthodontists" (29-1023),"Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons" (29-1022) and "Dentists, All Other Specialists" (29-1029).Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas   47-5011Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud through drill hole.  

Designers, All Other   27-1029

All designers not listed separately. 

Desktop Publishers   43-9031

Format typescript and graphic elements using computer software to produce publication-ready material.  

Detectives and Criminal Investigators   33-3021

Conduct investigations related to suspected violations of Federal, State, or local laws to prevent or solve crimes.  Excludes "Private Detectives and Investigators" (33-9021).  

Diagnostic Medical Sonographers   29-2032

Produce ultrasonic recordings of internal organs for use by physicians.  

Dietetic Technicians   29-2051

Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian.  May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.  

Dietitians and Nutritionists   29-1031

Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease.  May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.  

Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers   35-9011

Facilitate food service.  Clean tables, remove dirty dishes, replace soiled table linens; set tables; replenish supply of clean linens, silverware, glassware, and dishes; supply service bar with food; and serve items such as water, condiments, and coffee to patrons.  

Directors, Religious Activities and Education   21-2021

Plan, direct, or coordinate programs designed to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group.  May provide counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.  

Dishwashers   35-9021

Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils.  

Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance   43-5032

Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business.  Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.  

Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers   41-9091

Sell goods or services door-to-door or on the street.  

Drafters, All Other   17-3019

All drafters not listed separately.  

Dredge Operators   53-7031

Operate dredge to remove sand, gravel, or other materials in order to excavate and maintain navigable channels in waterways. Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4032Set up, operate, or tend drilling machines to drill, bore, ream, mill, or countersink metal or plastic work pieces.  

Driver/Sales Workers   53-3031

Drive truck or other vehicle over established routes or within an established territory and sell or deliver goods, such as food products, including restaurant take-out items, or pick up or deliver items such as commercial laundry.  May also take orders, collect payment, or stock merchandise at point of delivery.  Includes newspaper delivery drivers.  Excludes "Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers"(49-9091) and "Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers" (53-3033).  

Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers   47-2081

Apply plasterboard or other wallboard to ceilings or interior walls of buildings.  Apply or mount acoustical tiles or blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing materials to ceilings and walls of buildings to reduce or reflect sound.  Materials may be of decorative quality.  Includes lathers who fasten wooden, metal, or rock board  lath to walls, ceilings or partitions of buildings to provide support base for plaster, fire-proofing, or acoustical material.  Excludes “Carpet Installers" (47-2041), "Carpenters" (47-2031), and "Tile and Marble Setters" (47-2044).  


Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas   47-5021

Operate a variety of drills such as rotary, churn, and pneumatic to tap sub-surface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction.  May use explosives.  Includes horizontal and earth boring machine operators.  

Economics Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1063

Teach courses in economics.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Economists   19-3011

Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy.  May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods.  Excludes “Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists" (13-1161).  

Editors   27-3041

Plan, coordinate, or edit content of material for publication.  May review proposals and drafts for possible publication.  Includes technical editors.  

Education Administrators, All Other   11-9039

All education administrators not listed separately.  

Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School   11-9032

Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of public or private elementary or secondary level schools.  

Education Administrators, Postsecondary   11-9033

Plan, direct, or coordinate research, instructional, student administration and services, and other educational activities at postsecondary institutions, including universities, colleges, and junior and community colleges.  

Education Administrators, Preschool and Childcare Center/Program   11-9031

Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic and nonacademic activities of preschool and childcare centers or programs.  Excludes “Preschool Teachers" (25-2011).  

Education Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1081

Teach courses pertaining to education, such as counseling, curriculum, guidance, instruction, teacher education, and teaching English as a second language.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Education, Training, and Library Workers, All Other   25-9099

All education, training, and library workers not listed separately.  

Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors   21-1012

Counsel individuals and provide group educational and vocational guidance services.  

Electric Motor, Power Tool, and Related Repairers   49-2092

Repair, maintain, or install electric motors, wiring, or switches.  

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians   17-3023

Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, calibrate, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions.  Excludes” Broadcast Technicians" (27-4012).  

Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers   51-2022

Assemble or modify electrical or electronic equipment, such as computers, test equipment telemetering systems, electric motors, and batteries.  

Electrical and Electronics Drafters   17-3012

Prepare wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used for the manufacture, installation, or repair of electrical equipment.  

Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment   49-2093

Install, adjust, or maintain mobile electronics communication equipment, including sound, sonar, security, navigation, and surveillance systems on trains, watercraft, or other mobile equipment. Excludes “Avionics Technicians" (49-2091) and "Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles" (49-2096).  

Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment   49-2094

Repair, test, adjust, or install electronic equipment, such as industrial controls, transmitters, and antennas. Excludes “Avionics Technicians" (49-2091), "Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles"(49-2096), and "Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment" (49-2093).  

Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay   49-2095

Inspect, test, repair, or maintain electrical equipment in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays.  

Electrical Engineers   17-2071

Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use.  Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers" (17-2061).  

Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers   49-9051

Install or repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems.  May erect poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers.  Excludes “Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay" (49-2095).  

Electricians   47-2111

Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures.  Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes.  May install or service street lights, intercom systems, or electrical control systems. Excludes “Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers" (49-2098).  

Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers   51-2023

Assemble or modify electromechanical equipment or devices, such as servomechanisms, gyros, dynamometers, magnetic drums, tape drives, brakes, control linkage, actuators, and appliances.  

Electro-Mechanical Technicians   17-3024

Operate, test, maintain, or calibrate unmanned, automated, servo-mechanical, or electromechanical equipment.  May operate unmanned submarines, aircraft, or other equipment at worksites, such as oil rigs, deep ocean exploration, or hazardous waste removal.  May assist engineers in testing and designing robotics equipment.  

Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles   49-2096

Install, diagnose, or repair communications, sound, security, or navigation equipment in motor vehicles.  

Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers   49-2097

Repair, adjust, or install audio or television receivers, stereo systems, camcorders, video systems, or other electronic home entertainment equipment.  

Electronics Engineers, Except Computer   17-2072

Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties.  Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls.  Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers" (17-2061).  

Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education   25-2021

Teach students basic academic, social, and other formative skills in public or private schools at the elementary level.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).  

Elevator Installers and Repairers   47-4021

Assemble, install, repair, or maintain electric or hydraulic freight or passenger elevators, escalators, or dumbwaiters.  

Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs   43-4061

Determine eligibility of persons applying to receive assistance from government programs and agency resources, such as welfare, unemployment benefits, social security, and public housing.  

Embalmers   39-4011

Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.  

Emergency Management Directors   11-9161

Plan and direct disaster response or crisis management activities, provide disaster preparedness training, and prepare emergency plans and procedures for natural (e.g., hurricanes, floods, earthquakes), wartime, or technological (e.g., nuclear power plant emergencies or hazardous materials spills) disasters or hostage situations.  

Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics   29-2041

Assess injuries, administer emergency medical care, and extricate trapped individuals.  Transport injured or sick persons to medical facilities.  

Engine and Other Machine Assemblers   51-2031

Construct, assemble, or rebuild machines, such as engines, turbines, and similar equipment used in such industries as construction, extraction, textiles, and paper manufacturing.  

Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1032

Teach courses pertaining to the application of physical laws and principles of engineering for the development of machines, materials, instruments, processes, and services.  Includes teachers of subjects such as chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mineral, and petroleum engineering.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes "Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1021).  

Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other   17-3029

All engineering technicians, except drafters, not listed separately.  

Engineers, All Other   17-2199

All engineers not listed separately.  

English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1123

Teach courses in English language and literature, including linguistics and comparative literature.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other   27-2099All entertainers and performers, sports and related workers not listed separately.  

Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other   39-3099

All entertainment attendants and related workers not listed separately.  

Environmental Engineering Technicians   17-3025

Apply theory and principles of environmental engineering to modify, test, and operate equipment and devices used in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental problems, including waste treatment and site remediation, under the direction of engineering staff or scientist.  May assist in the development of environmental remediation devices.  

Environmental Engineers   17-2081

Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines.  Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology.  

Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health   19-4091

Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist. May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing.  

Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1053

Teach courses in environmental science.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health   19-2041

Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or the health of the population.  Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and  recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources.  Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists" (19-1023), "Conservation Scientists" (19-1031), "Forest and Conservation Technicians" (19-4093), "Fish and Game Wardens" (33-3031), and " Forest and Conservation Workers" (45-4011).  

Epidemiologists   19-1041

Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes.  May develop the means for prevention and control.  

Etchers and Engravers   51-9194

Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk screen etchers.  Photoengravers are included in "Prepress Technicians and Workers" (51-5111).  

Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators   53-7032

Operate or tend machinery equipped with scoops, shovels, or buckets, to excavate and load loose materials. Excludes “Dredge Operators" (53-7031).  

Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants   43-6011

Provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, handling information requests, and performing clerical functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings.  May also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff.  Excludes "Secretaries" (43-6012 through 43-6014).  

Exercise Physiologists   29-1128

Assess, plan, or implement fitness programs that include exercise or physical activities such as those designed to improve cardio respiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or flexibility.  Excludes “Physical Therapists” (29-1123), “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091), and “Fitness Trainers and Aerobic Instructors” (39-9031).  

Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters   47-5031

Place and detonate explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials.  May perform specialized handling, storage, and accounting procedures.  Includes seismograph shooters.  Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas" (47-5021) who may also work with explosives.  

Extraction Workers, All Other   47-5099

All extraction workers not listed separately.  

Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4021

Set up, operate, or tend machines to extrude or draw thermoplastic or metal materials into tubes, rods, hoses, wire, bars, or structural shapes.  

Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers   51-6091

Set up, operate, or tend machines that extrude and form continuous filaments from synthetic materials, such as liquid polymer, rayon, and fiberglass.  

Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-9041  

Set up, operate, or tend machines, such as glass forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to shape and form products, such as glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile, clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics.  Excludes “Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-9196) and "Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-6042).  

Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers   51-6092

Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts.  May also mark and cut fabrics and apparel.  


Fabric Menders, Except Garment   49-9093

Repair tears, holes, and other defects in fabrics, such as draperies, linens, parachutes, and tents.  

Fallers   45-4021

Use axes or chainsaws to fell trees using knowledge of tree characteristics and cutting techniques to control direction of fall and minimize tree damage.  

Family and General Practitioners   29-1062

Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases and injuries that commonly occur in the general population.  May refer patients to specialists when needed for further diagnosis or treatment.  

Farm and Home Management Advisors   25-9021

Advise, instruct, and assist individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home economics activities.  Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to solve problems; and instruct and train in product development, sales, and the use of machinery and equipment to promote general welfare.  Includes county agricultural agents, feed and farm management advisers, home economists, and extension service advisors.  

Farm Equipment Mechanics and Service Technicians   49-3041

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul farm machinery and vehicles, such as tractors, harvesters, dairy equipment, and irrigation systems.  Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).  

Farm Labor Contractors   13-1074

Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers.  May transport, house, and provide meals for workers.  

Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers   11-9013

Plan, direct, or coordinate the management or operation of farms, ranches, greenhouses, aquacultural operations, nurseries, timber tracts, or other agricultural establishments.  May hire, train, and supervise farm workers or contract for services to carry out the day-to-day activities of the managed operation.  May engage in or supervise planting, cultivating, harvesting, and financial and marketing activities.  Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers” (45-1011).  

Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse   45-2092

Manually plant, cultivate, and harvest vegetables, fruits, nuts, horticultural specialties, and field crops.  Use hand tools, such as shovels, trowels, hoes, tampers, pruning hooks, shears, and knives.  Duties may include tilling soil and applying fertilizers; transplanting, weeding, thinning, or pruning crops; applying pesticides; or cleaning, grading, sorting, packing, and loading harvested products.  May construct trellises, repair fences and farm buildings, or participate in irrigation activities.  Excludes “Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products" (45-2041) and “ Forest , Conservation, and Logging Workers" (45-4011 through 45-4029).  

Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals   45-2093

Attend to live farm, ranch, or aquacultural animals that may include cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses and other equines, poultry, finfish, shellfish, and bees.  Attend to animals produced for animal products, such as meat, fur, skins, feathers, eggs, milk, and honey.  Duties may include feeding, watering, herding, grazing, castrating, branding, de-beaking, weighing, catching, and loading animals.  May maintain records on animals; examine animals to detect diseases and injuries; assist in birth deliveries; and administer medications, vaccinations, or insecticides as appropriate.  May clean and maintain animal housing areas. Includes workers who shear wool from sheep, and collect eggs in hatcheries.  

Fashion Designers   27-1022

Design clothing and accessories.  Create original designs or adapt fashion trends.  

Fence Erectors   47-4031

Erect and repair fences and fence gates, using hand and power tools.  

Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators   51-2091

Laminate layers of fiberglass on molds to form boat decks and hulls, bodies for golf carts, automobiles, or other products.  

File Clerks   43-4071

File correspondence, cards, invoices, receipts, and other records in alphabetical or numerical order or according to the filing system used.  Locate and remove material from file when requested.  

Film and Video Editors   27-4032

Edit moving images on film, video, or other media.  May edit or synchronize soundtracks with images. Excludes “Sound Engineering Technicians” (27-4014).  

Financial Analysts   13-2051

Conduct quantitative analyses of information affecting investment programs of public or private institutions.  

Financial Clerks, All Other   43-3099

All financial clerks not listed separately.  

Financial Examiners   13-2061

Enforce or ensure compliance with laws and regulations governing financial and securities institutions and financial and real estate transactions.  May examine, verify, or authenticate records.  

Financial Managers   11-3031

Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment.  

Financial Specialists, All Other   13-2099

All financial specialists not listed separately.  

Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators   27-1013

Create original artwork using any of a wide variety of media and techniques.  

Fire Inspectors and Investigators   33-2021

Inspect buildings to detect fire hazards and enforce local ordinances and State laws, or investigate and gather facts to determine cause of fires and explosions.  

Firefighters   33-2011

Control and extinguish fires or respond to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk.  Duties may include fire prevention, emergency medical service, hazardous material response, search and rescue, and disaster assistance.  

First-Line Supervisors of Air Crew Members   55-2011

Supervise and coordinate the activities of air crew members. Supervisors may also perform the same activities as the workers they supervise.  

First-Line Supervisors of All Other Tactical Operations Specialists   55-2013

Supervise and coordinate the activities of all other tactical operations specialists not classified separately above. Supervisors may also perform the same activities as the workers they supervise.  

First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers   33-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers.  

First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers   45-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, aquacultural, and related workers. Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers" (37-1012).  

First-Line Supervisors of Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers   33-1021

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in fire fighting and fire prevention and control.  

First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers   35-1012Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.  

First-Line Supervisors of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand   53-1021

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of helpers, laborers, or material movers.  

First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers   37-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.  

First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers   37-1012

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities. Work may involve reviewing contracts to ascertain service, machine, and workforce requirements; answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, material, and price ranges; and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs.  

First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers   49-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers.  Excludes team or work leaders.  

First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers   41-1012

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers.  May perform duties, such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.  

First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers   43-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers.  

First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers   39-1021

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers, such as flight attendants, hairdressers, or caddies.  

First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives   33-1012

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of police force.  

First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers   51-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.  

First-Line Supervisors of Protective Service Workers, All Other   33-1099

All protective service supervisors not listed separately above.  

First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers   41-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department.  Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.  

First-Line Supervisors of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators   53-1031

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators and helpers.  

First-Line Supervisors of Weapons Specialists/Crew Members   55-2012

Supervise and coordinate the activities of weapons specialists/crew members. Supervisors may also perform the same activities as the workers they supervise.  

Fish and Game Wardens   33-3031

Patrol assigned area to prevent fish and game law violations.  Investigate reports of damage to crops or property by wildlife.  Compile biological data.  

Fishers and Related Fishing Workers   45-3011

Use nets, fishing rods, traps, or other equipment to catch and gather fish or other aquatic animals from rivers, lakes, or oceans, for human consumption or other uses.  May haul game onto ship.  Aquacultural laborers who work on fish farms are included in "Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals" (45-2093).  

Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors   39-9031

Instruct or coach groups or individuals in exercise activities.  Demonstrate techniques and form, observe participants, and explain to them corrective measures necessary to improve their skills.  Excludes teachers classified in 25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations.  Excludes “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022) and "Athletic Trainers" (29-9091).  

Flight Attendants   53-2031

Provide personal services to ensure the safety, security, and comfort of airline passengers during flight. Greet passengers, verify tickets, explain use of safety equipment, and serve food or beverages. Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles   47-2042Apply blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing, sound-deadening, or decorative coverings to floors.  

Floor Sanders and Finishers   47-2043

Scrape and sand wooden floors to smooth surfaces using floor scraper and floor sanding machine, and apply coats of finish.  

Floral Designers   27-1023

Design, cut, and arrange live, dried, or artificial flowers and foliage.  

Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders   51-3091

Operate or tend food or tobacco roasting, baking, or drying equipment, including hearth ovens, kiln driers, roasters, char kilns, and vacuum drying equipment.  

Food Batchmakers   51-3092

Set up and operate equipment that mixes or blends ingredients used in the manufacturing of food products. Includes candy makers and cheese makers.  

Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders   51-3093

Operate or tend cooking equipment, such as steam cooking vats, deep fry cookers, pressure cookers, kettles, and boilers, to prepare food products.  Excludes “Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-3091).  

Food Preparation and Serving Related Workers, All Other   35-9099

All food preparation and serving related workers not listed separately.  

Food Preparation Workers   35-2021

Perform a variety of food preparation duties other than cooking, such as preparing cold foods and shellfish, slicing meat, and brewing coffee or tea.  

Food Processing Workers, All Other   51-3099

All food processing workers not listed separately  

Food Scientists and Technologists   19-1012

Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.  

Food Servers, Nonrestaurant   35-3041

Serve food to individuals outside of a restaurant environment, such as in hotel rooms, hospital rooms, residential care facilities, or cars.  Excludes "Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers" (41-9091) and "Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop" (35-3022).  

Food Service Managers   11-9051

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages. Excludes “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).  

Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1124

Teach languages and literature courses in languages other than English.  Includes teachers of American Sign Language (ASL).  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Forensic Science Technicians   19-4092

Collect, identify, classify, and analyze physical evidence related to criminal investigations.  Perform tests on weapons or substances, such as fiber, hair, and tissue to determine significance to investigation.  May testify as expert witnesses on evidence or crime laboratory techniques.  May serve as specialists in area of expertise, such as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, or biochemistry.  

Forest and Conservation Technicians   19-4093

Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts, under the direction of foresters; or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation, fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031) and “Foresters” (19-1032).  

Forest and Conservation Workers   45-4011

Under supervision, perform manual labor necessary to develop, maintain, or protect areas such as forests, forested areas, woodlands, wetlands, and rangelands through such activities as raising and transporting seedlings; combating insects, pests, and diseases harmful to plant life; and building structures to control water, erosion, and leaching of soil.  Includes forester aides, seedling pullers, and tree planters.  

Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists   33-2022

Enforce fire regulations, inspect forest for fire hazards and recommend forest fire prevention or control measures.  May report forest fires and weather conditions.  

Foresters   19-1032

Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes.  May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber's worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement.  May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations.  May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.  

Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1043

Teach courses in forestry and conservation science.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  Excludes "Agricultural Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1041) and “Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1053).  

Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4022

Set up, operate, or tend forging machines to taper, shape, or form metal or plastic parts.  

Foundry Mold and Coremakers   51-4071

Make or form wax or sand cores or molds used in the production of metal castings in foundries.  

Fundraisers   13-1131

Organize activities to raise funds or otherwise solicit and gather monetary donations or other gifts for an organization.  May design and produce promotional materials.  May also raise awareness of the organization’s work, goals, and financial needs.  

Funeral Attendants   39-4021

Perform a variety of tasks during funeral, such as placing casket in parlor or chapel prior to service; arranging floral offerings or lights around casket; directing or escorting mourners; closing casket; and issuing and storing funeral equipment.  

Funeral Service Managers   11-9061

Plan, direct, or coordinate the services or resources of funeral homes.  Includes activities such as determining prices for services or merchandise and managing the facilities of funeral homes.  Excludes “Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors” (39-4031).  

Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders   51-9051

Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal, plastic, or food processing equipment.  Includes activities, such as annealing glass, drying lumber, curing rubber, removing moisture from materials, or boiling soap.  

Furniture Finishers   51-7021

Shape, finish, and refinish damaged, worn, or used furniture or new high-grade furniture to specified color or finish. Gaming and Sports Book Writers and Runners   39-3012Post information enabling patrons to wager on various races and sporting events.  Assist in the operation of games such as keno and bingo.  May operate random number generating equipment and announce the numbers for patrons.  Receive, verify, and record patrons' wagers.  Scan and process winning tickets presented by patrons and payout winnings for those wagers.  


Gaming Cage Workers   43-3041

In a gaming establishment, conduct financial transactions for patrons.  May reconcile daily summaries of transactions to balance books.  Accept patron's credit application and verify credit references to provide check-cashing authorization or to establish house credit accounts.  May sell gambling chips, tokens, or tickets to patrons or to other workers for resale to patrons.  May convert gaming chips, tokens, or tickets to currency upon patron's request.  May use a cash register or computer to record transaction.  

Gaming Change Persons and Booth Cashiers   41-2012

Exchange coins, tokens and chips for patrons' money.  May issue payoffs and obtain customer's signature on receipt.  May operate a booth in the slot machine area and furnish change persons with money bank at the start of the shift, or count and audit money in drawers.  Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).  

Gaming Dealers   39-3011

Operate table games.  Stand or sit behind table and operate games of chance by dispensing the appropriate number of cards or blocks to players, or operating other gaming equipment.  Distribute winnings or collect players' money or chips.  May compare the house's hand against players' hands.  

Gaming Managers   11-9071

Plan, direct, or coordinate gaming operations in a casino.  May formulate house rules.  

Gaming Service Workers, All Other   39-3019

All gaming service workers not listed separately.  

Gaming Supervisors   39-1011

Supervise and coordinate activities of workers in assigned gaming areas.  Circulate among tables and observe operations.  Ensure that stations and games are covered for each shift.  May explain and interpret operating rules of house to patrons.  May plan and organize activities and services for guests in hotels/casinos.  May address service complaints.  Excludes "Slot Supervisors" (39-1012).  

Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators   33-9031

Act as oversight and security agent for management and customers.  Observe casino or casino hotel operation for irregular activities such as cheating or theft by either employees or patrons.  May use one-way mirrors above the casino floor, cashier's cage, and from desk.  Use of audio/video equipment is also common to observe operation of the business.  Usually required to provide verbal and written reports of all violations and suspicious behavior to supervisor.  

Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators   53-7071

Operate steam, gas, electric motor, or internal combustion engine driven compressors.  Transmit, compress, or recover gases, such as butane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and natural gas.  

Gas Plant Operators   51-8092

Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines.  

General and Operations Managers   11-1021

Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations.  Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services.  Excludes First-Line Supervisors.  

Genetic Counselors   29-9092

Assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects.  Provide information to other healthcare providers or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.  Advise individuals and families to support informed decision making and coping methods for those at risk.  May help conduct research related to genetic conditions or genetic counseling.  

Geographers   19-3092

Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth's surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena.  Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.  

Geography Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1064

Teach courses in geography.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Geological and Petroleum Technicians   19-4041

Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in both laboratory and production activities to obtain data indicating potential resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum.  Analyze mud and drill cuttings.  Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes.  Investigate and collect information leading to the possible discovery of new metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum deposits.  

Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers   19-2042

Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth.  May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems.  May study the Earth's internal composition, atmospheres, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces.  Includes mineralogists, crystallographers, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.  

Glaziers   47-2121

Install glass in windows, skylights, store fronts, and display cases, or on surfaces, such as building fronts, interior walls, ceilings, and tabletops.  

Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products   45-2041

Grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition. Excludes “Agricultural Inspectors" (45-2011).  

Graduate Teaching Assistants   25-1191

Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing teaching or teaching-related duties, such as teaching lower level courses, developing teaching materials, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers.  Graduate teaching assistants must be enrolled in a graduate school program.  Graduate assistants who primarily perform non-teaching duties, such as research, should be reported in the occupational category related to the work performed.  Excludes “Teacher Assistants” (25-9041).Graphic Designers   27-1024Design or create graphics to meet specific commercial or promotional needs, such as packaging, displays, or logos.  May use a variety of mediums to achieve artistic or decorative effects.  

Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand   51-9022

Grind, sand, or polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a variety of metal, wood, stone, clay, plastic, or glass objects.  Includes chippers, buffers, and finishers.  

Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4033

Set up, operate, or tend grinding and related tools that remove excess material or burrs from surfaces, sharpen edges or corners, or buff, hone, or polish metal or plastic work pieces.  

Grounds Maintenance Workers, All Other   37-3019

All grounds maintenance workers not listed separately.  


Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists   39-5012

Provide beauty services, such as shampooing, cutting, coloring, and styling hair, and massaging and treating scalp.  May apply makeup, dress wigs, perform hair removal, and provide nail and skin care services.  Excludes "Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance (39-5091), "Manicurists and Pedicurists" (39-5092), and "Skincare Specialists" (39-5094).  

Hazardous Materials Removal Workers   47-4041

Identify, remove, pack, transport, or dispose of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead-based paint, waste oil, fuel, transmission fluid, radioactive materials, or contaminated soil.  Specialized training and certification in hazardous materials handling or a confined entry permit are generally required.  May operate earth-moving equipment or trucks.  

Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors   17-2111

Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws.  Includes industrial product safety engineers.  

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners, All Other   29-1199

All health diagnosing and treating practitioners not listed separately.  

Health Educators   21-1091

Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles.  Collect and analyze data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments.  May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs.  Excludes “Community Health Workers” (21-1094).  

Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1071

Teach courses in health specialties, in fields such as dentistry, laboratory technology, medicine, pharmacy, public health, therapy, and veterinary medicine.  Excludes "Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1072) and "Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1042) who teach medical science.  

Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other   29-2099

All health technologists and technicians not listed separately. 

Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other   29-9099

All healthcare practitioners and technical workers not listed separately.  

Healthcare Social Workers   21-1022

Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses.  Services include advising family care givers, providing patient education and counseling, and making referrals for other services.  May also provide care and case management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare.  

Healthcare Support Workers, All Other   31-9099

All healthcare support workers not listed separately  

Hearing Aid Specialists   29-2092

Select and fit hearing aids for customers.  Administer and interpret tests of hearing.  Assess hearing instrument efficacy.  Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds.  Excludes “Audiologists” (29-1181).  

Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4191

Set up, operate, or tend heating equipment, such as heat-treating furnaces, flame-hardening machines, induction machines, soaking pits, or vacuum equipment to temper, harden, anneal, or heat-treat metal or plastic objects.  

Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers   49-9021

Install or repair heating, central air conditioning, or refrigeration systems, including oil burners, hot-air furnaces, and heating stoves.  

Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers   53-3032

Drive a tractor-trailer combination or a truck with a capacity of at least 26,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW).  May be required to unload truck.  Requires commercial drivers' license. 

Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other   47-3019

All construction trades helpers not listed separately.  

Helpers-Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters   47-3011

Help brickmasons, blockmasons, stonemasons, or tile and marble setters by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons or tile and marble setters are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061).  Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).  

Helpers-Carpenters   47-3012

Help carpenters by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment.  Construction laborers who do not primarily assist carpenters are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061).  Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).  

Helpers-Electricians   47-3013

Help electricians by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment.  Construction laborers who do not primarily assist electricians are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061).  Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).  

Helpers-Extraction Workers   47-5081

Help extraction craft workers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work area.  Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).  

Helpers-Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers   49-9098

Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers in maintenance, parts replacement, and repair of vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment.  Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers; cleaning work area, machines, and tools; and holding materials or tools for other workers.  

Helpers-Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons   47-3014

Help painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment.  Construction laborers who do not primarily assist painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061).  Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).  

Helpers-Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters   47-3015

Help plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment.  Construction laborers who do not primarily assist plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers are classified under “Construction Laborers" (47-2061).  Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).  

Helpers-Production Workers   51-9198

Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment.  Apprentice workers are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000).  

Helpers-Roofers   47-3016

Help roofers by performing duties requiring less skill.  Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment.  Construction laborers who do not primarily assist roofers are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061).  Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).  

Highway Maintenance Workers   47-4051

Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way.  Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement, repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences.  May also mow or clear brush from along road or plow snow from roadway.  Excludes “Tree Trimmers and Pruners" (37-3013).  

Historians   19-3093

Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters.  

History Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1125

Teach courses in human history and historiography.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Hoist and Winch Operators   53-7041

Operate or tend hoists or winches to lift and pull loads using power-operated cable equipment.  Excludes “Crane and Tower Operators" (53-7021).  

Home Appliance Repairers   49-9031

Repair, adjust, or install all types of electric or gas household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, dryers, and ovens.  

Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1192

Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Home Health Aides   31-1011

Provide routine individualized healthcare such as changing bandages and dressing wounds, and applying topical medications to the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities at the patient’s home or in a care facility.  Monitor or report changes in health status.  May also provide personal care such as bathing, dressing, and grooming of patient.  

Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop   35-9031

Welcome patrons, seat them at tables or in lounge, and help ensure quality of facilities and service.  

Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks   43-4081

Accommodate hotel, motel, and resort patrons by registering and assigning rooms to guests, issuing room keys or cards, transmitting and receiving messages, keeping records of occupied rooms and guests' accounts, making and confirming reservations, and presenting statements to and collecting payments from departing guests.  

Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping   43-4161

Compile and keep personnel records.  Record data for each employee, such as address, weekly earnings, absences, amount of sales or production, supervisory reports, and date of and reason for termination.  May prepare reports for employment records, file employment records, or search employee files and furnish information to authorized persons.  

Human Resources Managers   11-3121

Plan, direct, or coordinate human resources activities and staff of an organization.  Excludes managers who primarily focus on compensation and benefits (11-3111) and training and development (11-3131).  

Human Resources Specialists   13-1071

Perform activities in the human resource area.  Includes employment specialists who screen, recruit, interview, and place workers.  Excludes “Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists” (13-1141) and “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151).  

Hunters and Trappers   45-3021

Hunt and trap wild animals for human consumption, fur, feed, bait, or other purposes. Hydrologists   19-2043

Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere.  


Industrial Engineering Technicians   17-3026

Apply engineering theory and principles to problems of industrial layout or manufacturing production, usually under the direction of engineering staff.  May perform time and motion studies on worker operations in a variety of industries for purposes such as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency.  

Industrial Engineers   17-2112

Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination.  Excludes “Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors" (17-2111).  

Industrial Machinery Mechanics   49-9041

Repair, install, adjust, or maintain industrial production and processing machinery or refinery and pipeline distribution systems.  Excludes “Millwrights" (49-9044), "Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines" (49-3042), and "Maintenance Workers, Machinery" (49-9043).Industrial Production Managers   11-3051Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing products in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications.  

Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators   53-7051

Operate industrial trucks or tractors equipped to move materials around a warehouse, storage yard, factory, construction site, or similar location.  Excludes “Logging Equipment Operators" (45-4022).  

Industrial-Organizational Psychologists   19-3032

Apply principles of psychology to human resources, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems.  Activities may include policy planning; employee testing and selection, training and development; and organizational development and analysis.  May work with management to organize the work setting to improve worker productivity.  

Infantry   55-3016

Operate weapons and equipment in ground combat operations.  Duties include operating and maintaining weapons, such as rifles, machine guns, mortars, and hand grenades; locating, constructing, and camouflaging infantry positions and equipment; evaluating terrain and recording topographical information; operating and maintaining field communications equipment; assessing need for and directing supporting fire; placing explosives and performing minesweeping activities on land; and participating in basic reconnaissance operations.  

Infantry Officers   55-1016

Direct, train, and lead infantry units in ground combat operations.  Duties include directing deployment of infantry weapons, vehicles, and equipment; directing location, construction, and camouflage of infantry positions and equipment; managing field communications operations; coordinating with armor, artillery, and air support units; performing strategic and tactical planning, including battle plan development; and leading basic reconnaissance operations.  

Information and Record Clerks, All Other   43-4199

All information and record clerks not listed separately.  

Information Security Analysts   15-1122

Plan, implement, upgrade, or monitor security measures for the protection of computer networks and information.  May ensure appropriate security controls are in place that will safeguard digital files and vital electronic infrastructure.  May respond to computer security breaches and viruses.  Excludes “Computer Network Architects” (15-1143).  

Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers   51-9061

Inspect, test, sort, sample, or weigh nonagricultural raw materials or processed, machined, fabricated, or assembled parts or products for defects, wear, and deviations from specifications.  May use precision measuring instruments and complex test equipment.  

Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other   49-9099

All, installation, maintenance, and repair workers not listed separately. Instructional Coordinators   25-9031Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology in specialized fields that provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses.  Includes educational consultants and specialists, and instructional material directors.  

Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall   47-2131

Line and cover structures with insulating materials.  May work with batt, roll, or blown insulation materials.  

Insulation Workers, Mechanical   47-2132

Apply insulating materials to pipes or ductwork, or other mechanical systems in order to help control and maintain temperature.  

Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage   13-1032

Appraise automobile or other vehicle damage to determine repair costs for insurance claim settlement. Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost or cost estimates and recommendations.  May seek agreement with automotive repair shop on repair costs.  

Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks   43-9041

Process new insurance policies, modifications to existing policies, and claims forms.  Obtain information from policyholders to verify the accuracy and completeness of information on claims forms, applications and related documents, and company records.  Update existing policies and company records to reflect changes requested by policyholders and insurance company representatives.  Excludes “Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators" (13-1031).  

Insurance Sales Agents   41-3021

Sell life, property, casualty, health, automotive, or other types of insurance.  May refer clients to independent brokers, work as an independent broker, or be employed by an insurance company.  

Insurance Underwriters   13-2053

Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.  

Interior Designers   27-1025

Plan, design, and furnish interiors of residential, commercial, or industrial buildings.  Formulate design which is practical, aesthetic, and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style.  May specialize in a particular field, style, or phase of interior design. Excludes "Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers" (27-1026).  

Internists, General   29-1063

Physicians who diagnose and provide non-surgical treatment of diseases and injuries of internal organ systems.  Provide care mainly for adults who have a wide range of problems associated with the internal organs.  Subspecialists, such as cardiologists and gastroenterologists, are included in "Physicians and Surgeons, All Other" (29-1069).  

Interpreters and Translators   27-3091

Interpret oral or sign language, or translate written text from one language into another.  

Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan   43-4111

Interview persons by telephone, mail, in person, or by other means for the purpose of completing forms, applications, or questionnaires.  Ask specific questions, record answers, and assist persons with completing form.  May sort, classify, and file forms.  


Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners   37-2011

Keep buildings in clean and orderly condition.  Perform heavy cleaning duties, such as cleaning floors, shampooing rugs, washing walls and glass, and removing rubbish.  Duties may include tending furnace and boiler, performing routine maintenance activities, notifying management of need for repairs, and cleaning snow or debris from sidewalk.  

Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers   51-9071

Design, fabricate, adjust, repair, or appraise jewelry, gold, silver, other precious metals, or gems.  Includes diamond polishers and gem cutters, and persons who perform precision casting and modeling of molds, casting metal in molds, or setting precious and semi-precious stones for jewelry and related products.  

Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates   23-1023

Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law.  May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines.  May determine liability of defendant in civil cases.  May perform wedding ceremonies.  

Judicial Law Clerks   23-1012

Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents.  Excludes "Lawyers" (23-1011) and "Paralegals and Legal Assistants" (23-2011).  


Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education   25-2012

Teach elemental natural and social science, personal hygiene, music, art, and literature to kindergarten students.  Promote physical, mental, and social development.  May be required to hold State certification. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).  


Labor Relations Specialists   13-1075

Resolve disputes between workers and managers, negotiate collective bargaining agreements, or coordinate grievance procedures to handle employee complaints.  Excludes equal employment opportunity (EEO) officers who are included in “Compliance Officers” (13-1041).  

Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand   53-7062

Manually move freight, stock, or other materials or perform other general labor.  Includes all manual laborers not elsewhere classified.  Excludes “Material Moving Workers" (53-7011 through 53-7199) who use power equipment.  Excludes “Construction Laborers" (47-2061) and "Helpers, Construction Trades (47-3011through 47-3019).  

Landscape Architects   17-1012

Plan and design land areas for projects such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites.  

Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers   37-3011

Landscape or maintain grounds of property using hand or power tools or equipment.  Workers typically perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, mowing, trimming, planting, watering, fertilizing, digging, raking, sprinkler installation, and installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units.  Excludes "Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse" (45-2092).  

Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4034

Set up, operate, or tend lathe and turning machines to turn, bore, thread, form, or face metal or plastic materials, such as wire, rod, or bar stock.  

Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers   51-6011

Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean industrial or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, linens, rugs, and carpets.  Includes spotters and dyers of these articles.  

Law Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1112

Teach courses in law.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Lawyers   23-1011

Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions.  May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law.  

Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic   51-4192

Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal or plastic stock or work pieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing.  Includes ship fitters.  

Legal Secretaries   43-6012

Perform secretarial duties using legal terminology, procedures, and documents.  Prepare legal papers and correspondence, such as summonses, complaints, motions, and subpoenas.  May also assist with legal research.  

Legal Support Workers, All Other   23-2099

All legal support workers not listed separately.  

Legislators   11-1031

Develop, introduce or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, State, or Federal level.  Includes only workers in elected positions.  

Librarians   25-4021

Administer libraries and perform related library services.  Work in a variety of settings, including public libraries, educational institutions, museums, corporations, government agencies, law firms, non-profit organizations, and healthcare providers.  Tasks may include selecting, acquiring, cataloguing, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; and furnishing reference, bibliographical, and readers’ advisory services.  May perform in-depth, strategic research, and synthesize, analyze, edit, and filter information.  May set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information.  

Library Assistants, Clerical   43-4121

Compile records, sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides and microfilm.  Locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title.  Register patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials.  Excludes “Library Technicians” (25-4031).  

Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1082

Teach courses in library science.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Library Technicians   25-4031

Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process.  Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files.  Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.  

Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses   29-2061

Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions.  May work under the supervision of a registered nurse. Licensing required.  

Life Scientists, All Other   19-1099

All life scientists not listed separately.  

Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other   19-4099All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately.  

Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service   33-9092

Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes to provide assistance and protection to participants.  

Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers   53-3033

Drive a light vehicle, such as a truck or van, with a capacity of less than 26,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), primarily to deliver or pick up merchandise or to deliver packages.  May load and unload vehicle. Excludes “Couriers and Messengers" (43-5021) and “Driver/Sales Workers” (53-3031).  

Loading Machine Operators, Underground Mining   53-7033

Operate underground loading machine to load coal, ore, or rock into shuttle or mine car or onto conveyors. Loading equipment may include power shovels, hoisting engines equipped with cable-drawn scraper or scoop, or machines equipped with gathering arms and conveyor.  

Loan Interviewers and Clerks   43-4131

Interview loan applicants to elicit information; investigate applicants' backgrounds and verify references; prepare loan request papers; and forward findings, reports, and documents to appraisal department.  Review loan papers to ensure completeness, and complete transactions between loan establishment, borrowers, and sellers upon approval of loan.  

Loan Officers   13-2072

Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans.  Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods.  Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, and loan underwriters.  

Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants   39-3093

Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms.  

Locksmiths and Safe Repairers   49-9094

Repair and open locks; make keys; change locks and safe combinations; and install and repair safes.  

Locomotive Engineers   53-4011

Drive electric, diesel-electric, steam, or gas-turbine-electric locomotives to transport passengers or freight. Interpret train orders, electronic or manual signals, and railroad rules and regulations.  

Locomotive Firers   53-4012

Monitor locomotive instruments and watch for dragging equipment, obstacles on rights-of-way, and train signals during run.  Watch for and relay traffic signals from yard workers to yard engineer in railroad yard.  

Lodging Managers   11-9081

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that provides lodging and other accommodations.  Excludes “Food Service Managers" (11-9051) in lodging establishments.  

Log Graders and Scalers   45-4023

Grade logs or estimate the marketable content or value of logs or pulpwood in sorting yards, millpond, log deck, or similar locations.  Inspect logs for defects or measure logs to determine volume.  Excludes “Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products" (13-1021).  

Logging Equipment Operators   45-4022

Drive logging tractor or wheeled vehicle equipped with one or more accessories, such as bulldozer blade, frontal shear, grapple, logging arch, cable winches, hoisting rack, or crane boom, to fell tree; to skid, load, unload, or stack logs; or to pull stumps or clear brush.  Logging truck drivers are included in “Heavy and Tractor Trailer Truck Drivers” (53-3032).  

Logging Workers, All Other   45-4029

All logging workers not listed separately.  

Logisticians   13-1081

Analyze and coordinate the logistical functions of a firm or organization.  Responsible for the entire lifecycle of a product, including acquisition, distribution, internal allocation, delivery, and final disposal of resources.  Excludes “Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers” (11-3071).  


Machine Feeders and Offbearers   53-7063

Feed materials into or remove materials from machines or equipment that is automatic or tended by other workers.  

Machinists   51-4041

Set up and operate a variety of machine tools to produce precision parts and instruments.  Includes precision instrument makers who fabricate, modify, or repair mechanical instruments.  May also fabricate and modify parts to make or repair machine tools or maintain industrial machines, applying knowledge of mechanics, mathematics, metal properties, layout, and machining procedures.  

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists   29-2035

Operate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners.  Monitor patient safety and comfort, and view images of area being scanned to ensure quality of pictures.  May administer gadolinium contrast dosage intravenously.  May interview patient, explain MRI procedures, and position patient on examining table. May enter into the computer data such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry.  

Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners   37-2012

Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner.  Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.  

Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service   43-9051

Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution.  Use hand or mail handling machines to time stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail; and address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages.  Duties may also include keeping necessary records and completed forms.  

Maintenance and Repair Workers, General   49-9071

Perform work involving the skills of two or more maintenance or craft occupations to keep machines, mechanical equipment, or the structure of an establishment in repair.  Duties may involve pipe fitting; boiler making; insulating; welding; machining; carpentry; repairing electrical or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning, and balancing new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, or stairs.  Excludes “Maintenance Workers, Machinery" (49-9043).  

Maintenance Workers, Machinery   49-9043

Lubricate machinery, change parts, or perform other routine machinery maintenance.  Excludes “Maintenance and Repair Workers, General" (49-9071).  

Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance   39-5091

Apply makeup to performers to reflect period, setting, and situation of their role.  

Management Analysts   13-1111

Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively.  Includes program analysts and management consultants. Excludes “Computer Systems Analysts" (15-1121) and "Operations Research Analysts" (15-2031).  

Managers, All Other   11-9199

All managers not listed separately.  

Manicurists and Pedicurists   39-5092

Clean and shape customers' fingernails and toenails.  May polish or decorate nails.  

Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers   49-9095

Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings.  

Marine Engineers and Naval Architects   17-2121

Design, develop, and evaluate the operation of marine vessels, ship machinery, and related equipment, such as power supply and propulsion systems. Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists   13-1161Research market conditions in local, regional, or national areas, or gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or create a marketing campaign. May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution.  

Marketing Managers   11-2021

Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers.  Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm's profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm’s customers are satisfied.  Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.  

Marriage and Family Therapists   21-1013

Diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems.  Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories and techniques in the delivery of services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders.  Excludes “Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029) and “Psychologists" of all types (19-3031 through 19-3039).  

Massage Therapists   31-9011

Perform therapeutic massages of soft tissues and joints.  May assist in the assessment of range of motion and muscle strength, or propose client therapy plans.  

Material Moving Workers, All Other   53-7199

All material moving workers not listed separately.  

Materials Engineers   17-2131

Evaluate materials and develop machinery and processes to manufacture materials for use in products that must meet specialized design and performance specifications.  Develop new uses for known materials. Includes those engineers working with composite materials or specializing in one type of material, such as graphite, metal and metal alloys, ceramics and glass, plastics and polymers, and naturally occurring materials.  Includes metallurgists and metallurgical engineers, ceramic engineers, and welding engineers.  

Materials Scientists   19-2032

Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass.  Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications.  Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.  

Mathematical Science Occupations, All Other   15-2099

All mathematical scientists not listed separately.  

Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1022

Teach courses pertaining to mathematical concepts, statistics, and actuarial science and to the application of original and standardized mathematical techniques in solving specific problems and situations.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Mathematical Technicians   15-2091

Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products.  

Mathematicians   15-2021

Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields.  Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.  

Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers   51-3022

Use hand or hand tools to perform routine cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, and seafood.  

Mechanical Door Repairers   49-9011

Install, service, or repair automatic door mechanisms and hydraulic doors.  Includes garage door mechanics.  

Mechanical Drafters   17-3013

Prepare detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information.  

Mechanical Engineering Technicians   17-3027

Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to modify, develop, test, or calibrate machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.  

Mechanical Engineers   17-2141

Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment.  Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.  

Media and Communication Equipment Workers, All Other   27-4099

All media and communication equipment workers not listed separately.  

Media and Communication Workers, All Other   27-3099

All media and communication workers not listed separately.  

Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians   29-2012

Perform routine medical laboratory tests for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.  May work under the supervision of a medical technologist.

Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists   29-2011

Perform complex medical laboratory tests for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.  May train or supervise staff.  

Medical and Health Services Managers   11-9111

Plan, direct, or coordinate medical and health services in hospitals, clinics, managed care organizations, public health agencies, or similar organizations.  

Medical Appliance Technicians   51-9082

Construct, fit, maintain, or repair medical supportive devices, such as braces, orthotics and prosthetic devices, joints, arch supports, and other surgical and medical appliances.  

Medical Assistants   31-9092

Perform administrative and certain clinical duties under the direction of a physician.  Administrative duties may include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes.  Clinical duties may include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories, preparing patients for examination, drawing blood, and administering medications as directed by physician. Excludes "Physician Assistants" (29-1071).  

Medical Equipment Preparers   31-9093

Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment.  May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.  

Medical Equipment Repairers   49-9062

Test, adjust, or repair biomedical or electromedical equipment.  

Medical Records and Health Information Technicians   29-2071

Compile, process, and maintain medical records of hospital and clinic patients in a manner consistent with medical, administrative, ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements of the health care system.  Process, maintain, compile, and report patient information for health requirements and standards in a manner consistent with the healthcare industry’s numerical coding system.  Excludes “File Clerks” (43-4071).  

Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists   19-1042

Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health.  Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities.  Includes physicians, dentists, public health specialists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research.  Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in “Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners” (29-1000).  

Medical Secretaries   43-6013

Perform secretarial duties using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures.  Duties may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, and compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.  

Medical Transcriptionists   31-9094

Transcribe medical reports recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices, covering office visits, emergency room visits, diagnostic imaging studies, operations, chart reviews, and final summaries.  Transcribe dictated reports and translate abbreviations into fully understandable form.  Edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature, or correction.  

Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners   13-1121

Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.  

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers   21-1023

Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs.  Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.  

Mental Health Counselors   21-1014

Counsel with emphasis on prevention.  Work with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health.  May help individuals deal with issues associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; and aging.  Excludes “Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029), "Psychiatrists" (29-1066), and "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039).  

Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers   27-1026

Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions. 

Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, All Other   51-4199

All metal workers and plastic workers not listed separately.  

Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders   51-4051

Operate or tend furnaces, such as gas, oil, coal, electric-arc or electric induction, open-hearth, or oxygen furnaces, to melt and refine metal before casting or to produce specified types of steel. Excludes “Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic" (51-4191).  

Meter Readers, Utilities   43-5041

Read meter and record consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam. Microbiologists   19-1022Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi.  Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.  

Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education   25-2022

Teach students in one or more subjects in public or private schools at the middle, intermediate, or junior high level, which falls between elementary and senior high school as defined by applicable laws and regulations.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School” (25-2023) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).  

Military Enlisted Tactical Operations and Air/Weapons Specialists and Crew Members, All Other   55-3019

All military enlisted tactical operations and air/weapons specialists and crewmembers not listed separately. Military Officer Special and Tactical Operations Leaders, All Other   55-1019All military officer special and tactical operations leaders not listed separately.  

Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4035

Set up, operate, or tend milling or planing machines to mill, plane, shape, groove, or profile metal or plastic work pieces.  

Millwrights   49-9044

Install, dismantle, or move machinery and heavy equipment according to layout plans, blueprints, or other drawings.  

Mine Cutting and Channeling Machine Operators   47-5042

Operate machinery such as longwall shears, plows, and cutting machines to cut or channel along the face or seams of coal mines, stone quarries, or other mining surfaces to facilitate blasting, separating, or removing minerals or materials from mines or from the Earth's surface.  Includes shale planers.  

Mine Shuttle Car Operators   53-7111

Operate diesel or electric-powered shuttle car in underground mine to transport materials from working face to mine cars or conveyor.  

Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers   17-2151

Conduct sub-surface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites. May specify the ground support systems, processes and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities.  May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions.  May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs.  Excludes "Petroleum Engineers" (17-2171).  

Mining Machine Operators, All Other   47-5049

All mining machine operators not listed separately.  

Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-9023

Set up, operate, or tend machines to mix or blend materials, such as chemicals, tobacco, liquids, color pigments, or explosive ingredients.  Excludes “Food Batchmakers" (51-3092).  

Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines   49-3042

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul mobile mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment, such as cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors, used in construction, logging, and surface mining.  Excludes “Rail Car Repairers" (49-3043) and "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).  

Model Makers, Metal and Plastic   51-4061

Set up and operate machines, such as lathes, milling and engraving machines, and jig borers to make working models of metal or plastic objects.  Includes template makers.  

Model Makers, Wood   51-7031

Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products.  Includes wood jig builders and loft workers.  

Models   41-9012

Model garments or other apparel and accessories for prospective buyers at fashion shows, private showings, or retail establishments.  May pose for photos to be used in magazines or advertisements.  May pose as subject for paintings, sculptures, and other types of artistic expression.  

Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic   51-9195

Mold, shape, form, cast, or carve products such as food products, figurines, tile, pipes, and candles consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, stone, or combinations of materials.  

Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4072

Set up, operate, or tend metal or plastic molding, casting, or coremaking machines to mold or cast metal or thermoplastic parts or products.  

Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors   39-4031

Perform various tasks to arrange and direct funeral services, such as coordinating transportation of body to mortuary, interviewing family or other authorized person to arrange details, selecting pallbearers, aiding with the selection of officials for religious rites, and providing transportation for mourners.  Excludes “Funeral Service Managers” (11-9061).  

Motion Picture Projectionists   39-3021

Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment.  

Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other   53-3099

All motor vehicle operators not listed separately.  

Motorboat Mechanics and Service Technicians   49-3051

Repair and adjust electrical and mechanical equipment of inboard or inboard-outboard boat engines. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).  

Motorboat Operators   53-5022

Operate small motor-driven boats.  May assist in navigational activities.  

Motorcycle Mechanics   49-3052

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul motorcycles, scooters, mopeds, dirt bikes, or similar motorized vehicles.  

Multimedia Artists and Animators   27-1014

Create special effects, animation, or other visual images using film, video, computers, or other electronic tools and media for use in products or creations, such as computer games, movies, music videos, and commercials.  

Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4081

Set up, operate, or tend more than one type of cutting or forming machine tool or robot.  

Museum Technicians and Conservators   25-4013

Restore, maintain, or prepare objects in museum collections for storage, research, or exhibit.  May work with specimens such as fossils, skeletal parts, or botanicals; or artifacts, textiles, or art.  May identify and record objects or install and arrange them in exhibits.  Includes book or document conservators.  

Music Directors and Composers   27-2041

Conduct, direct, plan, and lead instrumental or vocal performances by musical groups, such as orchestras, bands, choirs, and glee clubs.  Includes arrangers, composers, choral directors, and orchestrators.  

Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners   49-9063

Repair percussion, stringed, reed, or wind instruments.  May specialize in one area, such as piano tuning. Excludes “Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers" (49-2097) who repair electrical and electronic musical instruments.  

Musicians and Singers   27-2042

Play one or more musical instruments or sing.  May perform on stage, for on-air broadcasting, or for sound or video recording.  


Natural Sciences Managers   11-9121

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields.  Excludes “Architecture and Engineering Managers" (11-9041) and "Computer and Information Systems Managers" (11-3021).  

Network and Computer Systems Administrators   15-1142

Install, configure, and support an organization’s local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Internet systems or a segment of a network system.  Monitor network to ensure network availability to all system users and may perform necessary maintenance to support network availability.  May monitor and test Web site performance to ensure Web sites operate correctly and without interruption.  May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software.  May supervise computer user support specialists and computer network support specialists.  May administer network security measures.  Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1122), “Computer User Support Specialists” (15-1151), and “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1152).  

New Accounts Clerks   43-4141

Interview persons desiring to open accounts in financial institutions.  Explain account services available to prospective customers and assist them in preparing applications.  

Nonfarm Animal Caretakers   39-2021

Feed, water, groom, bathe, exercise, or otherwise care for pets and other nonfarm animals, such as dogs, cats, ornamental fish or birds, zoo animals, and mice.  Work in settings such as kennels, animal shelters, zoos, circuses, and aquariums.  May keep records of feedings, treatments, and animals received or discharged.  May clean, disinfect, and repair cages, pens, or fish tanks.  Excludes "Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers" (31-9096).  

Nuclear Engineers   17-2161

Conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal.  

Nuclear Medicine Technologists   29-2033

Prepare, administer, and measure radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies using a variety of radioisotope equipment.  Prepare stock solutions of radioactive materials and calculate doses to be administered by radiologists.  Subject patients to radiation.  Execute blood volume, red cell survival, and fat absorption studies following standard laboratory techniques.  

Nuclear Power Reactor Operators   51-8011

Operate or control nuclear reactors.  Move control rods, start and stop equipment, monitor and adjust controls, and record data in logs.  Implement emergency procedures when needed.  May respond to abnormalities, determine cause, and recommend corrective action.  

Nuclear Technicians   19-4051

Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory or production activities.  May operate, maintain, or provide quality control for nuclear testing and research equipment.  May monitor radiation.  

Nurse Anesthetists   29-1151

Administer anesthesia, monitor patient’s vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia.  May assist anesthesiologists, surgeons, other physicians, or dentists.  Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.  

Nurse Midwives   29-1161

Diagnose and coordinate all aspects of the birthing process, either independently or as part of a healthcare team.  May provide well-woman gynecological care.  Must have specialized, graduate nursing education.  

Nurse Practitioners   29-1171

Diagnose and treat acute, episodic, or chronic illness, independently or as part of a healthcare team.  May focus on health promotion and disease prevention.  May order, perform, or interpret diagnostic tests such as lab work and x rays.  May prescribe medication.  Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.  

Nursing Assistants   31-1014

Provide basic patient care under direction of nursing staff.  Perform duties such as feed, bathe, dress, groom, or move patients, or change linens.  May transfer or transport patients.  Includes nursing care attendants, nursing aides, and nursing attendants.  Excludes “Home Health Aides” (31-1011), “Orderlies” (31-1015), “Personal Care Aides” (39-9021), and “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1013).  

Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1072

Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  


Obstetricians and Gynecologists   29-1064

Physicians who provide medical care related to pregnancy or childbirth and those who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases of women, particularly those affecting the reproductive system.  May also provide general medical care to women.  

Occupational Health and Safety Specialists   29-9011

Review, evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors.  May conduct inspections and enforce adherence to laws and regulations governing the health and safety of individuals.  May be employed in the public or private sector.  Includes environmental protection officers.  

Occupational Health and Safety Technicians   29-9012

Collect data on work environments for analysis by occupational health and safety specialists.  Implement and conduct evaluation of programs designed to limit chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic risks to workers.  

Occupational Therapists   29-1122

Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that help build or restore vocational, homemaking, and daily living skills, as well as general independence, to persons with disabilities or developmental delays.  

Occupational Therapy Aides   31-2012

Under close supervision of an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations.  These duties include preparing patient and treatment room.  

Occupational Therapy Assistants   31-2011

Assist occupational therapists in providing occupational therapy treatments and procedures.  May, in accordance with State laws, assist in development of treatment plans; carry out routine functions, direct activity programs, and document the progress of treatments.  Generally requires formal training.  

Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other   43-9199

All office and administrative support workers not listed separately.  

Office Clerks, General   43-9061

Perform duties too varied and diverse to be classified in any specific office clerical occupation, requiring knowledge of office systems and procedures.  Clerical duties may be assigned in accordance with the office procedures of individual establishments and may include a combination of answering telephones, bookkeeping, typing or word processing, stenography, office machine operation, and filing.  

Office Machine Operators, Except Computer   43-9071

Operate one or more of a variety of office machines, such as photocopying, photographic, and duplicating machines, or other office machines.  Excludes “Computer Operators" (43-9011), “Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service" (43-9051) and "Billing and Posting Clerks" (43-3021).  

Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators   47-2073

Operate one or several types of power construction equipment, such as motor graders, bulldozers, scrapers, compressors, pumps, derricks, shovels, tractors, or front-end loaders to excavate, move, and grade earth, erect structures, or pour concrete or other hard surface pavement.  May repair and maintain equipment in addition to other duties.  Excludes “Crane and Tower Operators" (53-7021) and “Extraction Workers” (47-5000).  

Operations Research Analysts   15-2031

Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decision making, policy formulation, or other managerial functions.  May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, service, or products.  May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation.  

Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians   51-9083

Cut, grind, and polish eyeglasses, contact lenses, or other precision optical elements.  Assemble and mount lenses into frames or process other optical elements.  Includes precision lens polishers or grinders, centerer-edgers, and lens mounters.  Excludes “Opticians, Dispensing" (29-2081).  

Ophthalmic Medical Technicians   29-2057

Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions.  May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses.  

Opticians, Dispensing   29-2081

Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification.  Assist client with inserting, removing, and caring for contact lenses.  Assist client with selecting frames.  Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription.  Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames.  Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles.  Adjust frame and lens position to fit client.  May shape or reshape frames.  Includes contact lens opticians.  

Optometrists   29-1041

Diagnose, manage, and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system.  Examine eyes and visual system, diagnose problems or impairments, prescribe corrective lenses, and provide treatment. May prescribe therapeutic drugs to treat specific eye conditions.  Ophthalmologists are included in” Physicians and Surgeons, All Other” (29-1069).  

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons   29-1022

Perform surgery and related procedures on the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions to treat diseases, injuries, or defects.  May diagnose problems of the oral and maxillofacial regions.  May perform surgery to improve function or appearance.  

Order Clerks   43-4151

Receive and process incoming orders for materials, merchandise, classified ads, or services such as repairs, installations, or rental of facilities.  Generally receives orders via mail, phone, fax, or other electronic means.  Duties include informing customers of receipt, prices, shipping dates, and delays; preparing contracts; and handling complaints.  Excludes "Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance" (43-5032) who both dispatch and take orders for services.  

Orderlies   31-1015

Transport patients to areas such as operating rooms or x-ray rooms using wheelchairs, stretchers, or moveable beds.  May maintain stocks of supplies or clean and transport equipment.  Psychiatric orderlies are included in “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1013).  Excludes “Nursing Assistants” (31-1014).  

Orthodontists   29-1023

Examine, diagnose, and treat dental malocclusions and oral cavity anomalies.  Design and fabricate appliances to realign teeth and jaws to produce and maintain normal function and to improve appearance.  

Orthotists and Prosthetists   29-2091

Design, measure, fit, and adapt orthopedic braces, appliances or prostheses, such as limbs or facial parts for patients with disabling conditions.  

Outdoor Power Equipment and Other Small Engine Mechanics   49-3053

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul small engines used to power lawn mowers, chain saws, recreational sporting equipment and related equipment.  


Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders   51-9111

Operate or tend machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment.  Includes cannery workers who pack food products. Packers and Packagers, Hand   53-7064Pack or package by hand a wide variety of products and materials.  

Painters, Construction and Maintenance   47-2141

Paint walls, equipment, buildings, bridges, and other structural surfaces, using brushes, rollers, and spray guns.  May remove old paint to prepare surface prior to painting.  May mix colors or oils to obtain desired color or consistency.  Excludes “Paperhangers" (47-2142).  

Painters, Transportation Equipment   51-9122

Operate or tend painting machines to paint surfaces of transportation equipment, such as automobiles, buses, trucks, trains, boats, and airplanes.  Includes painters in auto body repair facilities.  

Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers   51-9123

Paint, coat, or decorate articles, such as furniture, glass, plateware, pottery, jewelry, toys, books, or leather. Excludes “Artists and Related Workers" (27-1010), "Designers" (27-1020), "Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators" (51-9151), and "Etchers and Engravers" (51-9194).  

Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-9196

Set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products.  

Paperhangers   47-2142

Cover interior walls or ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards.  May remove old materials or prepare surfaces to be papered.  

Paralegals and Legal Assistants   23-2011

Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent.  Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action.  Excludes “Legal Secretaries” (43-6012).  

Parking Enforcement Workers   33-3041

Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles.  

Parking Lot Attendants   53-6021

Park vehicles or issue tickets for customers in a parking lot or garage.  May collect fee.  

Parts Salespersons   41-2022

Sell spare and replacement parts and equipment in repair shop or parts store.

Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic   51-4062

Lay out, machine, fit, and assemble castings and parts to metal or plastic foundry patterns, core boxes, or match plates.  

Patternmakers, Wood   51-7032

Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings.  

Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators   47-2071

Operate equipment used for applying concrete, asphalt, or other materials to road beds, parking lots, or airport runways and taxiways, or equipment used for tamping gravel, dirt, or other materials.  Includes concrete and asphalt paving machine operators, form tampers, tamping machine operators, and stone spreader operators.  

Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks   43-3051

Compile and record employee time and payroll data.  May compute employees' time worked, production, and commission.  May compute and post wages and deductions, or prepare paychecks.  Excludes “Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks” (43-3031).  

Pediatricians, General   29-1065

Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent children's diseases and injuries.  

Personal Care Aides   39-9021

Assist the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities with daily living activities at the person's home or in a care facility.  Duties performed at a place of residence may include keeping house (making beds, doing laundry, washing dishes) and preparing meals.  May provide assistance at non-residential care facilities.  May advise families, the elderly, convalescents, and persons with disabilities regarding such things as nutrition, cleanliness, and household activities.  

Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other   39-9099

All personal care and service workers not listed separately.  

Personal Financial Advisors   13-2052

Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate.  Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives.  

Pest Control Workers   37-2021

Apply or release chemical solutions or toxic gases and set traps to kill or remove pests and vermin that infest buildings and surrounding areas.  

Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation   37-3012

Mix or apply pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, or insecticides through sprays, dusts, vapors, soil incorporation, or chemical application on trees, shrubs, lawns, or botanical crops.  Usually requires specific training and State or Federal certification.  Excludes "Commercial Pilots" (53-2012) who dust or spray crops from aircraft.

Petroleum Engineers   17-2171

Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs.  Oversee drilling and offer technical advice.  

Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers   51-8093

Operate or control petroleum refining or processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines.  

Pharmacists   29-1051

Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use.  May advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosage, interactions, and side effects of medications.  

Pharmacy Aides   31-9095

Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs.  May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.  

Pharmacy Technicians   29-2052

Prepare medications under the direction of a pharmacist.  May measure, mix, count out, label, and record amounts and dosages of medications according to prescription orders.  

Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1126

Teach courses in philosophy, religion, and theology.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Phlebotomists   31-9097

Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research.  May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions.  

Photographers   27-4021

Photograph people, landscapes, merchandise, or other subjects, using digital or film cameras and equipment.  May develop negatives or use computer software to produce finished images and prints. Includes scientific photographers, aerial photographers, and photojournalists.  

Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators   51-9151

Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media.  May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints.  

Physical Scientists, All Other   19-2099

All physical scientists not listed separately.  

Physical Therapist Aides   31-2022

Under close supervision of a physical therapist or physical therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations.  These duties include preparing the patient and the treatment area.  

Physical Therapist Assistants   31-2021

Assist physical therapists in providing physical therapy treatments and procedures.   May, in accordance with State laws, assist in the development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, document the progress of treatment, and modify specific treatments in accordance with patient status and within the scope of treatment plans established by a physical therapist.  Generally requires formal training.  

Physical Therapists   29-1123

Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and improve or correct disabling conditions resulting from disease or injury.  

Physician Assistants   29-1071

Provide healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician. Conduct complete physicals, provide treatment, and counsel patients.  May, in some cases, prescribe medication.  Must graduate from an accredited educational program for physician assistants.  Excludes “Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics" (29-2041), "Medical Assistants" (31-9092), "Registered Nurses" (29-1141), “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), and “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171).  

Physicians and Surgeons, All Other   29-1069

All physicians and surgeons not listed separately.  

Physicists   19-2012

Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories.  Excludes “Biochemists and Biophysicists” (19-1021).  

Physics Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1054

Teach courses pertaining to the laws of matter and energy.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Pile-Driver Operators   47-2072

Operate pile drivers mounted on skids, barges, crawler treads, or locomotive cranes to drive pilings for retaining walls, bulkheads, and foundations of structures, such as buildings, bridges, and piers.  

Pipelayers   47-2151

Lay pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, and water mains.  Perform any combination of the following tasks: grade trenches or culverts, position pipe, or seal joints.  Excludes “Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers" (51-4121).  

Plant and System Operators, All Other   51-8099

All plant and system operators not listed separately.  

Plasterers and Stucco Masons   47-2161

Apply interior or exterior plaster, cement, stucco, or similar materials.  May also set ornamental plaster.  

Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4193

Set up, operate, or tend plating or coating machines to coat metal or plastic products with chromium, zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel, or other metal to protect or decorate surfaces.  Includes electrolytic processes.  

Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters   47-2152

Assemble, install, alter, and repair pipelines or pipe systems that carry water, steam, air, or other liquids or gases.  May install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems.  Includes sprinkler fitters.  

Podiatrists   29-1081

Diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the human foot.  

Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers   33-3051

Maintain order and protect life and property by enforcing local, tribal, State, or Federal laws and ordinances.  Perform a combination of the following duties: patrol a specific area; direct traffic; issue traffic summonses; investigate accidents; apprehend and arrest suspects, or serve legal processes of courts.  

Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers   43-5031

Operate radio, telephone, or computer equipment at emergency response centers.  Receive reports from the public of crimes, disturbances, fires, and medical or police emergencies.  Relay information to law enforcement and emergency response personnel.  May maintain contact with caller until responders arrive.  

Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1065

Teach courses in political science, international affairs, and international relations.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Political Scientists   19-3094

Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems.  May study topics, such as public opinion, political decision-making, and ideology.  May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities.  May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents.  Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).  

Postal Service Clerks   43-5051

Perform any combination of tasks in a post office, such as receive letters and parcels; sell postage and revenue stamps, postal cards, and stamped envelopes; fill out and sell money orders; place mail in pigeonholes of mail rack or in bags; and examine mail for correct postage.  

Postal Service Mail Carriers   43-5052

Sort mail for delivery.  Deliver mail on established route by vehicle or on foot.  

Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators   43-5053

Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution.  Examine, sort, and route mail.  Load, operate, and occasionally adjust and repair mail processing, sorting, and canceling machinery.  Keep records of shipments, pouches, and sacks; and other duties related to mail handling within the postal service.  Excludes "Postal Service Clerks" (43-5051) and "Postal Service Mail Carriers" (43-5052).  

Postmasters and Mail Superintendents   11-9131

Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and supportive services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.  

Postsecondary Teachers, All Other   25-1199

All postsecondary teachers not listed separately.  

Pourers and Casters, Metal   51-4052

Operate hand-controlled mechanisms to pour and regulate the flow of molten metal into molds to produce castings or ingots.  

Power Distributors and Dispatchers   51-8012

Coordinate, regulate, or distribute electricity or steam.  

Power Plant Operators   51-8013

Control, operate, or maintain machinery to generate electric power.  Includes auxiliary equipment operators.  Excludes “Nuclear Power Reactor Operators" (51-8011).  

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other   49-9069

All precision instrument and equipment repairers not listed separately.  

Prepress Technician and Workers   51-5111

Format and proof text and images submitted by designers and clients into finished pages that can be printed.  Includes digital and photo typesetting.  May produce printing plates.  

Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education   25-2011

Instruct preschool-aged children in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth needed for primary school in preschool, day care center, or other child development facility.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  May be required to hold State certification.  Excludes "Childcare Workers" (39-9011) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).  

Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials   51-6021

Press or shape articles by hand or machine.  

Print Binding and Finishing Workers   51-5113

Bind books and other publications or finish printed products by hand or machine.  May set up binding and finishing machines.  

Printing Press Operators   51-5112

Set up and operate digital, letterpress, lithographic, flexographic, gravure, or other printing machines. Includes short-run offset printing presses.  

Private Detectives and Investigators   33-9021

Gather, analyze, compile and report information regarding individuals or organizations to clients, or detect occurrences of unlawful acts or infractions of rules in private establishment.  

Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists   21-1092

Provide social services to assist in rehabilitation of law offenders in custody or on probation or parole.  Make recommendations for actions involving formulation of rehabilitation plan and treatment of offender, including conditional release and education and employment stipulations.  

Procurement Clerks   43-3061

Compile information and records to draw up purchase orders for procurement of materials and services.  

Producers and Directors   27-2012

Produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or motion picture productions for entertainment, information, or instruction.  Responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of actors or guests, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography.  

Production Workers, All Other   51-9199

All production workers not listed separately.  

Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks   43-5061

Coordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within or between departments of an establishment according to production schedule.  Duties include reviewing and distributing production, work, and shipment schedules; conferring with department supervisors to determine progress of work and completion dates; and compiling reports on progress of work, inventory levels, costs, and production problems.  Excludes "Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping" (43-5111).  

Proofreaders and Copy Markers   43-9081

Read transcript or proof type setup to detect and mark for correction any grammatical, typographical, or compositional errors.  Excludes workers whose primary duty is editing copy.  Includes proofreaders of Braille.  

Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers   11-9141

Plan, direct, or coordinate the selling, buying, leasing, or governance activities of commercial, industrial, or residential real estate properties.  Includes managers of homeowner and condominium associations, rented or leased housing units, buildings, or land (including rights-of-way).  

Prosthodontists   29-1024

Construct oral prostheses to replace missing teeth and other oral structures to correct natural and acquired deformation of mouth and jaws, to restore and maintain oral function, such as chewing and speaking, and to improve appearance.  

Protective Service Workers, All Other   33-9099

All protective service workers not listed separately.  

Psychiatric Aides   31-1013

Assist mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed patients, working under direction of nursing and medical staff.  May assist with daily living activities, lead patients in educational and recreational activities, or accompany patients to and from examinations and treatments.  May restrain violent patients.  Includes psychiatric orderlies.  

Psychiatric Technicians   29-2053

Care for individuals with mental or emotional conditions or disabilities, following the instructions of physicians or other health practitioners.  Monitor patients' physical and emotional well-being and report to medical staff.  May participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs, help with personal hygiene, and administer oral or injectable medications.  

Psychiatrists   29-1066

Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent disorders of the mind.  

Psychologists, All Other   19-3039

All psychologists not listed separately.  

Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1066

Teach courses in psychology, such as child, clinical, and developmental psychology, and psychological counseling.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Public Address System and Other Announcers   27-3012

Make announcements over public address system at sporting or other public events.  May act as master of ceremonies or disc jockey at weddings, parties, clubs, or other gathering places.  

Public Relations and Fundraising Managers   11-2031

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities designed to create or maintain a favorable public image or raise issue awareness for their organization or client; or if engaged in fundraising, plan, direct, or coordinate activities to solicit and maintain funds for special projects or nonprofit organizations.  

Public Relations Specialists   27-3031

Engage in promoting or creating an intended public image for individuals, groups, or organizations.  May write or select material for release to various communications media.  

Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers   53-7072

Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes.  

Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products   13-1023

Purchase machinery, equipment, tools, parts, supplies, or services necessary for the operation of an establishment.  Purchase raw or semi-finished materials for manufacturing.  Excludes “Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products" (13-1021) and "Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products"(13-1022).  

Purchasing Managers   11-3061

Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of buyers, purchasing officers, and related workers involved in purchasing materials, products, and services.  Includes wholesale or retail trade merchandising managers and procurement managers.  


Radar and Sonar Technicians   55-3017

Operate equipment using radio or sound wave technology to identify, track, and analyze objects or natural phenomena of military interest. Include airborne, shipboard, and terrestrial positions. May perform minor maintenance.  

Radiation Therapists   29-1124

Provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiologist according to established practices and standards.  Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and maintaining records, reports, and files.  May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.  

Radio and Television Announcers   27-3011

Speak or read from scripted materials, such as news reports or commercial messages, on radio or television. May announce artist or title of performance, identify station, or interview guests.  Excludes “Broadcast News Analysts” (27-3021).  

Radio Operators   27-4013

Receive and transmit communications using radiotelephone equipment in accordance with government regulations.  May repair equipment.  Excludes “Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairs” (49-2021).  

Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairers   49-2021

Repair, install or maintain mobile or stationary radio transmitting, broadcasting, and receiving equipment, and two-way radio communications systems used in cellular telecommunications, mobile broadband, ship-to-shore, aircraft-to-ground communications, and radio equipment in service and emergency vehicles.  May test and analyze network coverage.  

Radiologic Technologists   29-2034

Take x rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient's blood stream for diagnostic purposes.  Includes technologists who specialize in other scanning modalities.  Excludes “Diagnostic Medical Sonographers” (29-2032) and “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists” (29-2035).  

Rail Car Repairers   49-3043

Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul railroad rolling stock, mine cars, or mass transit rail cars.  Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).  

Rail Transportation Workers, All Other   53-4099

All rail transportation workers not listed separately.  

Rail Yard Engineers, Dinkey Operators, and Hostlers   53-4013

Drive switching or other locomotive or dinkey engines within railroad yard, industrial plant, quarry, construction project, or similar location.  

Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators   53-4021

Operate railroad track switches.  Couple or uncouple rolling stock to make up or break up trains.  Signal engineers by hand or flagging.  May inspect couplings, air hoses, journal boxes, and hand brakes.  

Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters   53-4031

Coordinate activities of switch-engine crew within railroad yard, industrial plant, or similar location. Conductors coordinate activities of train crew on passenger or freight trains.  Yardmasters review train schedules and switching orders and coordinate activities of workers engaged in railroad traffic operations, such as the makeup or breakup of trains and yard switching.  

Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators   47-4061

Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines.  Includes ballast cleaning machine operators and railroad bed tamping machine operators.  

Real Estate Brokers   41-9021

Operate real estate office, or work for commercial real estate firm, overseeing real estate transactions.  Other duties usually include selling real estate or renting properties and arranging loans.  

Real Estate Sales Agents   41-9022

Rent, buy, or sell property for clients.  Perform duties, such as study property listings, interview prospective clients, accompany clients to property site, discuss conditions of sale, and draw up real estate contracts. Includes agents who represent buyer.  

Receptionists and Information Clerks   43-4171

Answer inquiries and provide information to the general public, customers, visitors, and other interested parties regarding activities conducted at establishment and location of departments, offices, and employees within the organization.  Excludes "Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service" (43-2011).  

Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1193

Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Recreation Workers   39-9032

Conduct recreation activities with groups in public, private, or volunteer agencies or recreation facilities. Organize and promote activities, such as arts and crafts, sports, games, music, dramatics, social recreation, camping, and hobbies, taking into account the needs and interests of individual members.  

Recreational Therapists   29-1125

Plan, direct, or coordinate medically-approved recreation programs for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions.  Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities, and arts and crafts.  May assess a patient condition and recommend appropriate recreational activity.  Excludes “Recreation Workers” (39-9032).  

Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians   49-3092

Diagnose, inspect, adjust, repair, or overhaul recreational vehicles including travel trailers.  May specialize in maintaining gas, electrical, hydraulic, plumbing, or chassis/towing systems as well as repairing generators, appliances, and interior components.  Includes workers who perform customized van conversions.  Excludes “Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics" (49-3023) and "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031) who also work on recreation vehicles.  

Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons   49-9045

Build or repair equipment such as furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits and ovens, using refractory materials.  

Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors   53-7081

Collect and dump refuse or recyclable materials from containers into truck.  May drive truck.  

Registered Nurses   29-1141

Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records.  Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients.  May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management.  Licensing or registration required.  Includes Clinical Nurse Specialists.  Excludes “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), and “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171).  

Rehabilitation Counselors   21-1015

Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, or the stress of daily life.  Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities.  Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement.  

Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers   47-2171

Position and secure steel bars or mesh in concrete forms in order to reinforce concrete.  Use a variety of fasteners, rod-bending machines, blowtorches, and hand tools.  Includes rod busters.  

Religious Workers, All Other   21-2099

All religious workers not listed separately.  

Reporters and Correspondents   27-3022

Collect and analyze facts about newsworthy events by interview, investigation, or observation.  Report and write stories for newspaper, news magazine, radio, or television.  Excludes "Broadcast News Analysts" (27-3021).  

Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks   43-4181

Make and confirm reservations for transportation or lodging, or sell transportation tickets.  May check baggage and direct passengers to designated concourse, pier, or track; deliver tickets, contact individuals and groups to inform them of package tours; or provide tourists with travel or transportation information. Excludes "Travel Agents" (41-3041), "Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks" (43-4081), and "Cashiers" (41-2011) who sell tickets for local transportation.  

Residential Advisors   39-9041

Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments.  Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings.  May maintain household records and assign rooms.  May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources.  

Respiratory Therapists   29-1126

Assess, treat, and care for patients with breathing disorders.  Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians.  Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.  

Respiratory Therapy Technicians   29-2054

Provide respiratory care under the direction of respiratory therapists and physicians.  

Retail Salespersons   41-2031

Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers.  Excludes “Cashiers" (41-2011).  

Riggers   49-9096

Set up or repair rigging for construction projects, manufacturing plants, logging yards, ships and shipyards, or for the entertainment industry.  

Rock Splitters, Quarry   47-5051

Separate blocks of rough dimension stone from quarry mass using jackhammer and wedges.  

Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic   51-4023

Set up, operate, or tend machines to roll steel or plastic forming bends, beads, knurls, rolls, or plate or to flatten, temper, or reduce gauge of material.  

Roof Bolters, Mining   47-5061

Operate machinery to install roof support bolts in underground mine.  

Roofers   47-2181

Cover roofs of structures with shingles, slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, or related materials.  May spray roofs, sidings, and walls with material to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures.  

Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas   47-5012

Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration.  Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas” (47-5021).  

Roustabouts, Oil and Gas   47-5071

Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools.  Perform other tasks as needed.  


Sailors and Marine Oilers   53-5011

Stand watch to look for obstructions in path of vessel, measure water depth, turn wheel on bridge, or use emergency equipment as directed by captain, mate, or pilot.  Break out, rig, overhaul, and store cargo-handling gear, stationary rigging, and running gear.  Perform a variety of maintenance tasks to preserve the painted surface of the ship and to maintain line and ship equipment.  Must hold government-issued certification and tanker man certification when working aboard liquid-carrying vessels.  Includes able seamen and ordinary seamen.  

Sales and Related Workers, All Other   41-9099

All sales and related workers not listed separately.  

Sales Engineers   41-9031

Sell business goods or services, the selling of which requires a technical background equivalent to a baccalaureate degree in engineering.  Excludes "Engineers" (17-2011 through 17-2199) whose primary function is not marketing or sales.  

Sales Managers   11-2022

Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer. Coordinate sales distribution by establishing sales territories, quotas, and goals and establish training programs for sales representatives.  Analyze sales statistics gathered by staff to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers.  

Sales Representatives, Services, All Other   41-3099

All services sales representatives not listed separately.  

Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products   41-4012

Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses or groups of individuals.  Work requires substantial knowledge of items sold.  

Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products   41-4011

Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers where technical or scientific knowledge is required in such areas as biology, engineering, chemistry, and electronics, normally obtained from at least 2 years of post-secondary education.  Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031).  

Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood   51-7041

Set up, operate, or tend wood sawing machines.  May operate CNC equipment.  Includes lead sawyers.  

Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education   25-2031

Teach students in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies at the secondary level in public or private schools.  May be designated according to subject matter specialty.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes "Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School" (25-2032) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).  

Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive   43-6014

Perform routine clerical and administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers. Excludes legal, medical, and executive secretaries (43-6011 through 43-6013).  

Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents   41-3031

Buy and sell securities or commodities in investment and trading firms, or provide financial services to businesses and individuals.  May advise customers about stocks, bonds, mutual funds, commodities, and market conditions.  

Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers   49-2098

Install, program, maintain, and repair security and fire alarm wiring and equipment.  Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes.  Excludes “Electricians" (47-2111) who do a broad range of electrical wiring.  

Security Guards   33-9032 Guard, patrol, or monitor premises to prevent theft, violence, or infractions of rules.  May operate x-ray and metal detector equipment.  Excludes “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).


Segmental Pavers   47-4091  

Lay out, cut, and place segmental paving units.  Includes installers of bedding and restraining materials for the paving units.  

Self-Enrichment Education Teachers   25-3021

Teach or instruct courses other than those that normally lead to an occupational objective or degree. Courses may include self-improvement, nonvocational, and nonacademic subjects.  Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution. Excludes “Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors” (39-9031).  Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).  

Semiconductor Processors   51-9141

Perform any or all of the following functions in the manufacture of electronic semiconductors: load semiconductor material into furnace; saw formed ingots into segments; load individual segment into crystal growing chamber and monitor controls; locate crystal axis in ingot using x-ray equipment and saw ingots into wafers; and clean, polish, and load wafers into series of special purpose furnaces, chemical baths, and equipment used to form circuitry and change conductive properties.  

Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-9012  

Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; condenser tubes; precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks; scrubbing towers; or batch stills.  These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators.  Excludes “Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders"(51-9011).  

Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners   47-4071

Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains.  May patch walls and partitions of tank, replace damaged drain tile, or repair breaks in underground piping.  

Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining   47-5013

Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells.  May also perform similar services in mining exploration operations. Includes fishing-tool technicians.  

Set and Exhibit Designers   27-1027

Design special exhibits and movie, television, and theater sets.  May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.  

Sewers, Hand   51-6051

Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items.  Includes weavers and stitchers.  Excludes “Fabric Menders, Except Garment" (49-9093).  

Sewing Machine Operators   51-6031

Operate or tend sewing machines to join, reinforce, decorate, or perform related sewing operations in the manufacture of garment or nongarment products.  

Shampooers   39-5093

Shampoo and rinse customers' hair.  

Sheet Metal Workers   47-2211

Fabricate, assemble, install, and repair sheet metal products and equipment, such as ducts, control boxes, drainpipes, and furnace casings.  Work may involve any of the following: setting up and operating fabricating machines to cut, bend, and straighten sheet metal; shaping metal over anvils, blocks, or forms using hammer; operating soldering and welding equipment to join sheet metal parts; or inspecting, assembling, and smoothing seams and joints of burred surfaces.  Includes sheet metal duct installers who install prefabricated sheet metal ducts used for heating, air conditioning, or other purposes.  

Ship Engineers   53-5031

Supervise and coordinate activities of crew engaged in operating and maintaining engines, boilers, deck machinery, and electrical, sanitary, and refrigeration equipment aboard ship.  

Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks   43-5071

Verify and maintain records on incoming and outgoing shipments.  Prepare items for shipment.  Duties include assembling, addressing, stamping, and shipping merchandise or material; receiving, unpacking, verifying and recording incoming merchandise or material; and arranging for the transportation of products. Excludes "Stock Clerks and Order Fillers" (43-5081) and "Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping" (43-5111).  

Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers   51-6041

Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles.  

Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders   51-6042

Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.  

Signal and Track Switch Repairers   49-9097

Install, inspect, test, maintain, or repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, or intercommunications systems within a railroad system.  

Skincare Specialists   39-5094

Provide skincare treatments to face and body to enhance an individual’s appearance.  Includes electrologists and laser hair removal specialists.  

Slaughterers and Meat Packers   51-3023

Work in slaughtering, meat packing, or wholesale establishments performing precision functions involving the preparation of meat.  Work may include specialized slaughtering tasks, cutting standard or premium cuts of meat for marketing, making sausage, or wrapping meats.  Excludes “Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers" (51-3022) who perform routine meat cutting.  

Slot Supervisors   39-1012

Supervise and coordinate activities of slot department workers to provide service to patrons.  Handle and settle complaints of players.  Verify and pay off jackpots.  Reset slot machines after payoffs.  Make repairs or adjustments to slot machines or recommend removal of slot machines for repair.  Report hazards and enforce safety rules.  

Social and Community Service Managers   11-9151

Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of a social service program or community outreach organization. Oversee the program or organization's budget and policies regarding participant involvement, program requirements, and benefits.  Work may involve directing social workers, counselors, or probation officers.  

Social and Human Service Assistants   21-1093

Assist in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families.  May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services.  May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care.  Excludes "Rehabilitation Counselors" (21-1015), "Psychiatric Technicians" (29-2053),"Personal Care Aides" (39-9021), and "Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs" (43-4061).  

Social Science Research Assistants   19-4061

Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research.  May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management.  Excludes “Graduate Teaching Assistants" (25-1191).  

Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other   25-1069

All postsecondary social sciences teachers not listed separately.  

Social Scientists and Related Workers, All Other   19-3099

All social scientists and related workers not listed separately.  

Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1113

Teach courses in social work.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Social Workers, All Other   21-1029

All social workers not listed separately.  

Sociologists   19-3041

Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations.  May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.  

Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1067

Teach courses in sociology.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  

Software Developers, Applications   15-1132

Develop, create, and modify general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions.  Design software or customize software for client use with the aim of optimizing operational efficiency.  May analyze and design databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team.  May supervise computer programmers.  

Software Developers, Systems Software   15-1133

Research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications.  Set operational specifications and formulate and analyze software requirements. May design embedded systems software.   Apply principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis.  

Soil and Plant Scientists   19-1013

Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth.  May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity.  

Solar Photovoltaic Installers   47-2231

Assemble, install, or maintain solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on roofs or other structures in compliance with site assessment and schematics.  May include measuring, cutting, assembling, and bolting structural framing and solar modules.  May perform minor electrical work such as current checks.  Excludes solar thermal installers who are included in “Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters” (47-2152).  Excludes solar PV electricians who are included in “Electricians” (47-2111).  

Sound Engineering Technicians   27-4014

Operate machines and equipment to record, synchronize, mix, or reproduce music, voices, or sound effects in sporting arenas, theater productions, recording studios, or movie and video productions.  

Special Education Teachers, All Other   25-2059

All special education teachers not listed separately.  

Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School   25-2052

Teach elementary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  

Special Education Teachers, Middle School   25-2053

Teach middle school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  

Special Education Teachers, Preschool   25-2051

Teach preschool school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  

Special Education Teachers, Secondary School   25-2054

Teach secondary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  

Special Forces   55-3018

Implement unconventional operations by air, land, or sea during combat or peacetime as members of elite teams.  These activities include offensive raids, demolitions, reconnaissance, search and rescue, and counterterrorism.  In addition to their combat training, special forces members often have specialized training in swimming, diving, parachuting, survival, emergency medicine, and foreign languages.  Duties include conducting advanced reconnaissance operations and collecting intelligence information; recruiting, training, and equipping friendly forces; conducting raids and invasions on enemy territories; laying and detonating explosives for demolition targets; locating, identifying, defusing, and disposing of ordnance; and operating and maintaining sophisticated communications equipment.  

Special Forces Officers   55-1017

Lead elite teams that implement unconventional operations by air, land, or sea during combat or peacetime.  These activities include offensive raids, demolitions, reconnaissance, search and rescue, and counterterrorism. In addition to their combat training, special forces officers often have specialized training in swimming, diving, parachuting, survival, emergency medicine, and foreign languages.  Duties include directing advanced reconnaissance operations and evaluating intelligence information; recruiting, training, and equipping friendly forces; leading raids and invasions on enemy territories; training personnel to implement individual missions and contingency plans; performing strategic and tactical planning for politically sensitive missions; and operating sophisticated communications equipment.  

Speech-Language Pathologists   29-1127

Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders.  May select alternative communication systems and teach their use.  May perform research related to speech and language problems.  

Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators   51-8021

Operate or maintain stationary engines, boilers, or other mechanical equipment to provide utilities for buildings or industrial processes.  Operate equipment, such as steam engines, generators, motors, turbines, and steam boilers.  

Statistical Assistants   43-9111

Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies.  May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for use by actuaries.  Includes actuarial clerks.  

Statisticians   15-2041

Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information.  May specialize in fields such as bio-statistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics.  Includes mathematical and survey statisticians.  Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).  

Stock Clerks and Order Fillers   43-5081

Receive, store, and issue sales floor merchandise, materials, equipment, and other items from stockroom, warehouse, or storage yard to fill shelves, racks, tables, or customers' orders.  May mark prices on merchandise and set up sales displays.  Excludes "Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand"(53-7062), and "Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks" (43-5071).  

Stonemasons   47-2022

Build stone structures, such as piers, walls, and abutments.  Lay walks, curbstones, or special types of masonry for vats, tanks, and floors.  

Structural Iron and Steel Workers   47-2221

Raise, place, and unite iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or structural frameworks.  May erect metal storage tanks and assemble prefabricated metal buildings.  Excludes “Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers" (47-2171).  

Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters   51-2041

Fabricate position, align, and fit parts of structural metal products. Shipfitters are included in “Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic” (51-4192).  

Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors   21-1011

Counsel and advise individuals with alcohol, tobacco, drug, or other problems, such as gambling and eating disorders.  May counsel individuals, families, or groups or engage in prevention programs.  Excludes “Social Workers" (21-1021 through  21-1029), "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039), and "Mental Health Counselors" (21-1014) providing these services.  

Subway and Streetcar Operators   53-4041

Operate subway or elevated suburban trains with no separate locomotive, or electric-powered streetcar, to transport passengers.  May handle fares.  

Supervisors of Construction and Extraction Workers   47-1011

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extraction workers.  

Surgeons   29-1067

Physicians who treat diseases, injuries, and deformities by invasive, minimally-invasive, or non-invasive surgical methods, such as using instruments, appliances, or by manual manipulation.  Excludes "Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons" (29-1022).  

Surgical Technologists   29-2055

Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel.  May help set up operating room, prepare and transport patients for surgery, adjust lights and equipment, pass instruments and other supplies to surgeons and surgeon's assistants, hold retractors, cut sutures, and help count sponges, needles, supplies, and instruments.  

Survey Researchers   19-3022

Plan, develop, or conduct surveys.  May analyze and interpret the meaning of survey data, determine survey objectives, or suggest or test question wording.  Includes social scientists that primarily design questionnaires or supervise survey teams.  Excludes "Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists"(13-1161) and "Statisticians" (15-2041).  

Surveying and Mapping Technicians   17-3031

Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetric to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes.  May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features.  May verify accuracy and completeness of maps.  Excludes “Surveyors" (17-1022),"Cartographers and Photogrammetrists" (17-1021), and "Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers" (19-2042).  

Surveyors   17-1022

Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries.  Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth's surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.  

Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service   43-2011

Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls.  May supply information to callers and record messages.  


Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers   51-6052

Design, make, alter, repair, or fit garments.  

Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders   53-7121

Load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships using material moving equipment.  May perform a variety of other tasks relating to shipment of products.  May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks.  

Tapers   47-2082

Seal joints between plasterboard or other wallboard to prepare wall surface for painting or papering.  

Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents   13-2081

Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.  

Tax Preparers   13-2082

Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses.  Excludes “Accountants and Auditors” (13-2011).  

Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs   53-3041

Drive automobiles, vans, or limousines to transport passengers.  May occasionally carry cargo.  Includes hearse drivers.  Excludes “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians" (53-3011) and "Bus Drivers" (53-3020).  

Teacher Assistants   25-9041

Perform duties that are instructional in nature or deliver direct services to students or parents.  Serve in a position for which a teacher has ultimate responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services.  Excludes “Graduate Teaching Assistants” (25-1191).  

Teachers and Instructors, All Other   25-3099

All teachers and instructors not listed separately.  

Team Assemblers   51-2092

Work as part of a team having responsibility for assembling an entire product or component of a product. Team assemblers can perform all tasks conducted by the team in the assembly process and rotate through all or most of them rather than being assigned to a specific task on a permanent basis.  May participate in making management decisions affecting the work.  Includes team leaders who work as part of the team. Assemblers who continuously perform the same task are classified elsewhere in 51-2000.  

Technical Writers   27-3042

Write technical materials, such as equipment manuals, appendices, or operating and maintenance instructions.  May assist in layout work.  

Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers   49-2022

Install, set-up, rearrange, or remove switching, distribution, routing, and dialing equipment used in central offices or head ends.  Service or repair telephone, cable television, Internet, and other communications equipment on customers' property.  May install communications equipment or communications wiring in buildings.  Excludes “Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers” (49-9052).  

Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers   49-9052

Install and repair telecommunications cable, including fiber optics.  

Telemarketers   41-9041

Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.  

Telephone Operators   43-2021

Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories.  Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections.  May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls.  

Tellers   43-3071

Receive and pay out money.  Keep records of money and negotiable instruments involved in a financial institution’s various transactions.  

Terrazzo Workers and Finishers   47-2053

Apply a mixture of cement, sand, pigment, or marble chips to floors, stairways, and cabinet fixtures to fashion durable and decorative surfaces.  

Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders   51-6061

Operate or tend machines to bleach, shrink, wash, dye, or finish textiles or synthetic or glass fibers.  

Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-6062

Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut textiles.  

Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-6063

Set up, operate, or tend machines that knit, loop, weave, or draw in textiles.  Excludes “Sewing Machine Operators" (51-6031).  

Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-6064

Set up, operate, or tend machines that wind or twist textiles; or draw out and combine sliver, such as wool, hemp, or synthetic fibers.  Includes slubber machine and drawing frame operators.

Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers, All Other   51-6099

All textile, apparel, and furnishings workers not listed separately.  

Therapists, All Other   29-1129  

All therapists not listed separately.  

Tile and Marble Setters   47-2044

Apply hard tile, marble, and wood tile to walls, floors, ceilings, and roof decks.  

Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters   51-2093

Perform precision assembling, adjusting, or calibrating, within narrow tolerances, of timing devices such as digital clocks or timing devices with electrical or electronic components.  Excludes watchmakers, which are included in “Watch Repairers" (49-9064).  

Tire Builders   51-9197

Operate machines to build tires.  

Tire Repairers and Changers   49-3093

Repair and replace tires.  

Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers   23-2093

Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes.  May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies.  

Tool and Die Makers   51-4111

Analyze specifications, lay out metal stock, set up and operate machine tools, and fit and assemble parts to make and repair dies, cutting tools, jigs, fixtures, gauges, and machinists' hand tools.  

Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners   51-4194

Perform precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, or grinding of metal objects.  

Tour Guides and Escorts   39-7011

Escort individuals or groups on sightseeing tours or through places of interest, such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.  

Traffic Technicians   53-6041

Conduct field studies to determine traffic volume, speed, and effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors influencing traffic conditions, under direction of traffic engineer.  

Training and Development Managers   11-3131

Plan, direct, or coordinate the training and development activities and staff of an organization.  

Training and Development Specialists   13-1151

Design and conduct training and development programs to improve individual and organizational performance.  May analyze training needs.  

Transit and Railroad Police   33-3052

Protect and police railroad and transit property, employees, or passengers.  

Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants   53-6061

Provide services to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard ships, buses, trains, or within the station or terminal.  Perform duties such as greeting passengers, explaining the use of safety equipment, serving meals or beverages, or answering questions related to travel.  Excludes “Baggage Porters and Bellhops” (39-6011).  

Transportation Inspectors   53-6051

Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people.  Includes rail transportation inspectors, such as freight inspectors; rail inspectors; and other inspectors of transportation vehicles, not elsewhere classified.  Excludes “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).  

Transportation Security Screeners   33-9093

Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations.  May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints.  

Transportation Workers, All Other   53-6099

All transportation workers not listed separately.  

Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers   11-3071

Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations.  Includes logistics managers.  

Travel Agents   41-3041

Plan and sell transportation and accommodations for travel agency customers.  Determine destination, modes of transportation, travel dates, costs, and accommodations required.  May also describe, plan, and arrange itineraries and sell tour packages.  May assist in resolving clients’ travel problems.  

Travel Guides   39-7012

Plan, organize, and conduct long distance travel , tours, and expeditions for individuals and groups.  

Tree Trimmers and Pruners   37-3013

Using sophisticated climbing and rigging techniques, cut away dead or excess branches from trees or shrubs to maintain right-of-way for roads, sidewalks, or utilities, or to improve appearance, health, and value of tree.  Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners.  Works off the ground in the tree canopy and may use truck-mounted lifts.  Excludes workers who primarily perform duties of "Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation" (37-3012) and "Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers" (37-3011).  


Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials   27-2023

Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events.  Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations.  Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.  

Upholsterers   51-6093

Make, repair, or replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles.  

Urban and Regional Planners   19-3051

Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.  

Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers   39-3031

Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and locating such facilities as rest rooms and telephones.  


Veterinarians   29-1131

Diagnose, treat, or research diseases and injuries of animals.  Includes veterinarians who conduct research and development, inspect livestock, or care for pets and companion animals.  

Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers   31-9096

Feed, water, and examine pets and other nonfarm animals for signs of illness, disease, or injury in laboratories and animal hospitals and clinics.  Clean and disinfect cages and work areas, and sterilize laboratory and surgical equipment.  May provide routine post-operative care, administer medication orally or topically, or prepare samples for laboratory examination under the supervision of veterinary or laboratory animal technologists or technicians, veterinarians, or scientists.  Excludes "Nonfarm Animal Caretakers" (39-2021).  

Veterinary Technologists and Technicians   29-2056

Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals.  Prepare vaccines and serums for prevention of diseases.  Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests, such as urinalysis and blood counts.  Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines.  May assist a veterinarian during surgery.  

Vocational Education Teachers, Postsecondary   25-1194

Teach or instruct vocational or occupational subjects at the postsecondary level (but at less than the baccalaureate) to students who have graduated or left high school.  Includes correspondence school instructors; industrial, commercial, and government training instructors; and adult education teachers and instructors who prepare persons to operate industrial machinery and equipment and transportation and communications equipment.  Teaching may take place in public or private schools whose primary business is education or in a school associated with an organization whose primary business is other than education.  


Waiters and Waitresses   35-3031

Take orders and serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining establishment.  Excludes "Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop" (35-3022).  

Watch Repairers   49-9064

Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks.  Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers.  

Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators   51-8031

Operate or control an entire process or system of machines, often through the use of control boards, to transfer or treat water or wastewater.  

Web Developers   15-1134

Design, create, and modify Web sites.  Analyze user needs to implement Web site content, graphics, performance, and capacity.  May integrate Web sites with other computer applications.  May convert written, graphic, audio, and video components to compatible Web formats by using software designed to facilitate the creation of Web and multimedia content.  Excludes “Multimedia Artists and Animators” (27-1014).  

Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping   43-5111

Weigh, measure, and check materials, supplies, and equipment for the purpose of keeping relevant records. Duties are primarily clerical by nature.  Includes workers who collect and keep record of samples of products or materials.  Excludes "Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers" (51-9061).  

Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers   51-4121

Use hand-welding, flame-cutting, hand soldering, or brazing equipment to weld or join metal components or to fill holes, indentations, or seams of fabricated metal products.  

Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders   51-4122

Set up, operate, or tend welding, soldering, or brazing machines or robots that weld, braze, solder, or heat treat metal products, components, or assemblies.  Includes workers who operate laser cutters or laser-beam machines.  

Wellhead Pumpers   53-7073

Operate power pumps and auxiliary equipment to produce flow of oil or gas from wells in oil field.  

Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products   13-1022

Buy merchandise or commodities, other than farm products, for resale to consumers at the wholesale or retail level, including both durable and nondurable goods.  Analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of merchandise to determine value and yield.  Select, order, and authorize payment for merchandise according to contractual agreements.  May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products.  Includes assistant wholesale and retail buyers of nonfarm products.  

Wind Turbine Service Technicians   49-9081

Inspect, diagnose, adjust, or repair wind turbines.  Perform maintenance on wind turbine equipment including resolving electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic malfunctions.  

Woodworkers, All Other   51-7099

All woodworkers not listed separately.  

Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing   51-7042

Set up, operate, or tend woodworking machines, such as drill presses, lathes, shapers, routers, sanders, planers, and wood nailing machines.  May operate CNC equipment.  

Word Processors and Typists   43-9022

Use word processor, computer or typewriter to type letters, reports, forms, or other material from rough draft, corrected copy, or voice recording.  May perform other clerical duties as assigned.  Excludes “Data EntryKeyers" (43-9021), "Secretaries and Administrative Assistants" (43-6011 through 43-6014), "Court Reporters"(23-2091), and "Medical Transcriptionists" (31-9094).  

Writers and Authors   27-3043

Originate and prepare written material, such as scripts, stories, advertisements, and other material.  Excludes "Public Relations Specialists" (27-3031) and "Technical Writers" (27-3042).  


Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists   19-1023

Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife.  May specialize in wildlife research and management.  May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.  

RI Department of Labor and Training
Labor Market Information
Center General Complex
1511 Pontiac Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920

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