of Labor Statistics (BLS)- An agency within the United
States Department of Labor, this organization is the principal
data-gathering agency of the federal government in the field of labor
economics. It collects, processes, analyzes and disseminates data relating
to employment, unemployment, the labor force, productivity, prices, family
expenditures, wages, industrial relations and occupational safety and
Business Cycle - A pattern of fluctuation in economic activity, characterized by
alternate expansion and contraction. Economists distinguish four phases:
(1) expansion, (2) contraction, (3) depression or recession, and (4)
Census - A count of a specified population and selected characteristics in a
given area (housing, industry, etc.) and the statistical information
derived from it. The United States Census
Bureau conducts a
nationwide census of population and housing every ten years.
Index (CPI) - is a measure of the average change over time in
the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods
Covered Employment - Those jobs covered by the Unemployment Compensation program. Generally,
those not covered include some agricultural workers, certain domestics,
certain nonprofit employees and self-employed workers.
Statistics (CES)- Monthly
sample survey of about 400,000 employers nationwide, which yields
estimates of nonagricultural wage and salary employment, hours, and
earnings by industry. These statistics are prepared monthly by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics for the entire nation, and by cooperating state
agencies for each of the 50 states, the District of Colombia, and most
MSA’s. The BLS publish data in "Employment and Earnings".
Current Population Survey
(CPS) - Monthly household survey
of a sample of the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over.
Conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The survey provides a variety of demographic, economic, and social
Cyclical Industry - An industry whose sales and profits reflect the ups and downs of the
business cycle. Almost all capital goods industries (steel, machine tools,
etc.) are cyclical because any decline in consumer demand may eliminate
the demand for the capital goods needed to make the product.
Cyclical Unemployment - Unemployment that is caused by periodic declines in business activity
that give rise to an inadequate demand for workers.
Worker - Person who
would like to work but is not actively seeking employment because of a
feeling that there are no jobs available.
Dislocated or Displaced
Workers - Workers who are laid
off or dismissed due to structural changes in their industry or
occupation, such as plant closing or relocation, increased competition,
automation or market changes.
Durable Goods - Items with a normal life expectancy of three years or more, such as
automobiles and furniture. Durable goods are the most volatile component
of consumer expenditures.
Model - A set of
related equations used to analyze economic data through mathematical and
statistical techniques. Econometric models are used for forecasting,
estimating the likely quantitative impact of alternative assumptions,
including those of government policies, and for testing various theories
about the way the economy works.
Economic Indicator - A statistical series that has been found to represent fairly accurately
the changes in business conditions.
Disadvantaged - A person who
meets one or more of the following criteria:
(1) a member of a family which receives
public assistance, or
(2) a member of a family whose income
during the previous six months on an annualized basis was such that (a)
the family would have qualified for public assistance, if it applied, or
(b) family income is below the poverty level, or (c) family income is
less than 70 percent of the lower living standard income level, or
(3) a foster child on whose behalf
state or local government payments are made, or
(4) an individual with significant
barriers to employment because the individual is (a) a client of a
sheltered workshop, or (b) a handicapped individual, or (c) a person
residing in an institution or facility providing 24-hour support such as
a prison, a hospital or community care facility, or (d) a regular
outpatient of a mental hospital, rehabilitation facility, or similar
Employed - Those individuals, 16 years of age or older, who worked at least one
hour for pay or profit or worked at least 15 unpaid hours in a family
business, during the reference week (the week including the 12th of the
month). Individuals are also counted as employed if they have a job but
did not work because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or
other personal reason.
Unemployment - The
temporary joblessness which results from individuals who are between jobs,
are engaged in seasonal work, have quit their jobs and are looking for
better ones, or are looking for their first jobs. This type of
unemployment is usually short term and is caused by the economy’s
inability to immediately match job seekers with jobs.
Full Employment - A state of the economy in which all persons who want to work can find
employment without much difficulty at the prevailing rates of pay. This
does not mean the same thing as zero unemployment because seasonal and
frictional unemployment will still exist to some extent.
Full-Time Employment - Generally includes persons who worked 35 hours or more during the survey
week (week of the month that includes the 12th). Persons who worked
between one and 34 hours are designated as working part-time.
Technology - Indicates
the presence of one of more of the following: (1) high use of scientific
and technical workers, (2) high expenditure for research and development
(R&D) activities, or (3) the industry’s product either used advanced
technologies for its production or is itself an example of advanced
Income- There are numerous
measures of income, including:
income of the householder and all other persons 15 years old and
over in the household, whether related to the householder or not.
Households include all the persons who occupy a housing unit – a
house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms or a single
room that is occupied as separate living quarters. Because many
households consist of only one person, average household income is
usually less than average family income.
Income of Families and Persons-In
compiling statistics on family income, the incomes of all members
15 years old and over in each family are summed and treated as a
single amount. Family households include a householder and one or
more persons living in the same household who are related to the
household by birth, marriage or adoption. All persons in the
household who are related to the householder are regarded as
members of his or her family. Not all households contain families
since a household may comprise a group of unrelated individuals or
one person living alone.
median divides the income distribution into two equal parts, one
having incomes above the median and the other having incomes below
the median. For households and families, the median income is
based on the distribution of the total number of units including
those with no income. The median for persons is based on persons
Per capita income- is the mean income computed for every man, woman, and child in a
particular group. It is derived by dividing the total income of a
particular group by the total population in that group.
Number - A measure of
the relative changes occurring in a series of values compared with a base
period. The base period usually equals 100, and any changes from it
Matrix - A tabulation of
employment data cross-classified by industry and occupation, arranged in a
grid divided into rows and columns. It provides a model representing the
occupational employment staffing pattern of each industry for one point in
Initial Claim - Notice filed by a worker at the beginning of a period of unemployment
requesting a determination of insured status for jobless benefits.
Force - Includes all
persons 16 years of age or older, living within a specified geographic
area who are either employed or unemployed. This is a count of persons
(not jobs) by location of residence (not location of work).
Labor Market Area (LMA) - A labor market area consists of a central city or cities and the
surrounding territory within normal commuting distance. Persons in a labor
market area can change jobs without having to change residences. The
boundaries depend primarily on economic and geographic factors rather than
on political jurisdictions. New Shoreham LMA is the only Rhode Island LMA.
Labor Market Information - Data on job seekers, employment, unemployment, changes in industrial
structure, technological changes, conditions of employment, wage rates and
other related data.
Labor Surplus Area - In Rhode Island a labor surplus area is defined as a city or town which
had an unemployment rate 1.2 times the national average for the preceding
two calendar years. The classification is made by the United States
Department of Labor and is effective from October 1 of the current year
through September 30 of the following year, when a new list is issued.
Employers located in labor surplus areas are eligible for preference in
bidding on federal contracts under several federal laws and executive
Statistical Area (MSA) - An area containing a city of at least 50,000 or an urbanized area of at
least 50,000 with a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000.
MSA’s are defined by cities and towns within New England and by counties
throughout the remainder of the country. As of January 2005, areas are no
longer defined as an MSA. Areas have been designated as New England City
& Town Areas (NECTA).
The MSA’s which included Rhode Island
cities or towns were:
River-Warwick, RI-MA-MSA: RI Portion: Barrington,
Bristol, Warren; Coventry, East Greenwich, Warwick, West Greenwich,
West Warwick; Jamestown, Little Compton, Tiverton; Burrillville,
Central Falls, Cranston, Cumberland, East Providence, Foster,
Glocester, Johnston, Lincoln, North Providence, North Smithfield,
Pawtucket, Providence, Scituate, Smithfield, Woonsocket; Charlestown,
Exeter, Narragansett, North Kingstown, Richmond, South Kingstown; MA
portion: Attleboro, Fall River, North Attleboro, Rehoboth, Seekonk,
Somerset, Swansea, and Westport.
England City and Town Area (NECTA), Providence-Fall
includes 37 communities in Rhode Island and 12 in Massachusetts. The
general concept of the
NECTA is one of a large population center, usually over 50,000, together
communities which have a high degree of economic and social integration
within that locality.
Wage and Salary Employment - Includes persons on nonagricultural establishment payrolls (including
employees on paid sick leave, paid holiday or paid vacation) who work or
receive pay for any part of the pay period including the 12th of the
month. It does not include proprietors, self-employed, unpaid volunteer or
family workers, domestic workers in households, military personnel, and
persons who are laid off, on leave without pay or on strike for the entire
Nondurable Goods - Items that generally last for only a short time (three years or less),
such as food, beverages, and apparel. Because of the nature of nondurable
goods, they are generally purchased when needed.
American Industry Classification System (NAICS) - The
successor to the SIC system; this system of classifying business
establishments is being used by the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
NAICS is an industry classification system that groups establishments into
industries based on the activities in which they are primarily engaged. It
is a comprehensive system covering the entire field of economic
activities, producing and nonproducing. There are 20 sectors in NAICS and
1,179 industries in NAICS in the United States.
Statistical modifications made to compensate for predictable fluctuations
which recur more or less regularly every year in a time series such as
unemployment rates. These fluctuations tend to conceal underlying trends.
Seasonally adjusted estimates give a clearer picture of long-term trends
by compensating for such influences as summer school closings and holiday
Seasonal Industry - An industry in which business activity is affected by regularly
recurring events such as weather changes, holidays, vacations, etc.
Self-Employed Worker - An individual who works more or less regularly, but usually does
so in his/her own home or office, and is not listed on any
State Employment Security
Agency (SESA) - The agency in
each state with responsibility for implementing laws and regulations
related to employment.
Structural Unemployment - Long-term joblessness resulting from changes in job skill requirements,
job skill obsolescence, and the availability of job skill training
Underemployed - Persons who are employed in positions that do not utilize their skill or
educational level or who desire a full-time job but are only working
part-time because of economic conditions.
Unemployed - Those individuals, 16 years of age or older, who have no job but are
available for work and actively seeking work during the reference week
(the week including the 12th of the month). The only exceptions to these
criteria are individuals who are waiting to be recalled from a lay off and
individuals waiting to report to a new job within 30 days - these, too,
are considered unemployed.
Unemployment Insurance - A program that provides benefits to insured and eligible persons who are
out of work due to conditions beyond their control. The program if
financed by an employer tax.
Unemployment Rate - The total number of unemployed as a percent of the total labor force
(employed plus unemployed). The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate is
calculated in the same manner using seasonally adjusted labor force and
Investment Act - On August 7, 1998, President Clinton signed
the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), comprehensive reform
legislation that supersedes the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and
amends the Wagner-Peyser Act. WIA reforms Federal job training programs
and creates a new, comprehensive workforce investment system. The reformed
system is intended to be customer-focused, to help Americans access the
tools they need to manage their careers through information and high
quality services, and to help U.S. companies find skilled workers. Rhode
Island's has two Workforce Investment Boards (WIB), Workforce
Solutions of Providence/Cranston and Workforce
Partnership of Greater Rhode Island, which includes
the balance of state.